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Symbol MPO contributors: mct - updated : 28-11-2017
HGNC name myeloperoxidase
HGNC id 7218
  • an heme protein with a calcium binding loop, as other peroxidases
  • conjugated HemoP
    mono polymer dimer
  • peroxidase family
  • XPO subfamily
  • mammalian heme peroxidase (MHP) multigene family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
  • azurophilic granules
  • primary liposomes
  • basic FUNCTION
  • involved in oxygen dependent mechanism of phagocytosis and in myeloid differentiation
  • contributes critically to O2-dependent neutrophil antimicrobial activity
  • implicated in atherosclerosis and cholesterol homeostasis
  • crucial prerequisite for structural remodeling of the myocardium, leading to an increased vulnerability to atrial fibrillation
  • acts as a major downstream mediator of atrial fibrosis and atrial arrhythmogeneity
  • intimately involved in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation
  • is required for neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation
  • is involved in a multitude of inflammatory processes involving oxidative modification of soluble components and cellular surfaces
  • plays a key role in promoting atherosclerosis via oxidative stress by modification of both high- and low-density lipoprotein and production of other bioactive molecules
  • MPO is unique in its capacity to oxidize chloride at physiologic pH to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent microbicide that contributes to neutrophil-mediated host defense against infection
  • MPO, via its catalytic activity, inhibits the generation of adaptive immunity by suppressing dendritic cells (DCs) activation, Ag uptake/processing, and migration to lymph nodes (LNs) to limit pathological tissue inflammation
  • abundant hemoprotein expressed by neutrophil granulocytes that is recognized to play an important role in the development of vascular diseases
  • uses hydrogen peroxide generated by the oxidative burst of neutrophils to produce an array of antimicrobial oxidants
  • has both potent microbicidal and, upon binding to the vessel wall, pro-inflammatory properties
  • role for myeloperoxidase-dependent lipid peroxidation
  • MPO -dependent lipid peroxidation promotes the oxidative modification of cytosolic proteins in phagocytic neutrophils
  • MPO may contribute importantly to formation and rupture of cerebral aneurysms
  • important and previously unsuspected role for MPO and EPX as drivers of angiogenesis
  • chaperoned by calreticulin (CALR) in the endoplasmic reticulum
  • MPO and PRTN3 in neutrophils of Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients with active disease have a distinct pattern of histone modifications, which implicates epigenetic mechanisms in regulating expression of autoantigen genes
  • peroxidase enzymes, like MPO and EPX, may play a fundamental role in inhibiting TNFSF11-induced osteoclast differentiation at inflammatory sites of bone fracture and injury
  • the difference in MPO between women with abnormal and normal menstrual cycles and the upregulation of MPO before ovulation suggest that neutrophils and MPO are closely related to ovulation
  • is the major peroxidase enzyme in neutrophil granules and is implicated in contributing to inflammatory lung damage in cystic fibrosis
  • EPX and MPO are key contributors to cancer progression by augmenting pro-tumorigenic collagen production and angiogenesis
  • is synthesized by neutrophil and monocyte precursor cells and contributes to host defense by mediating microbial killing
    a component
  • formed by dimerization of hemi-MPO
  • MPO, PON1, and high-density lipoprotein bind to one another, forming a ternary complex, wherein PON1 partially inhibits MPO activity, while MPO inactivates PON1
    small molecule
  • ceruloplasmin (CP), the multicopper oxidase of plasma, interacts with myeloperoxidase (MPO), and inhibits its peroxidase and chlorinating activity
  • NR1H3 and PPARA target gene (role of these receptors in regulation of proinflammatory genes in macrophages)
  • interacting with SFTPD (myeloperoxidase-dependent inactivation of surfactant protein D)
  • CP should provide a protective shield against inadvertent oxidant production by MPO during inflammation
  • MPO binds to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on the basis of electrostatic interactions, and MPO chlorinating and oxidizing activity is potentiated upon association with these proteins
  • MPO binds CFP directly, which then serves as a focus for alternative pathway (AP) activation
  • SERPING1 inhibits the peroxidase activity of MPO in CF (cystic fibrosis) sputum likely via an antioxidant mechanism
  • cell & other
  • bind to both endothelial cells and leukocyte membranes
    induced by oxidative stress that induces myeloperoxidase expression in endocardial endothelial cells from patients with chronic heart failure
    Other cleaved in an alpha large (59kDa) iron binding subunit and two smaller beta subunits (13kDa)
    corresponding disease(s) MPOD
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in children with hypercholesterolemia
    tumoral       loss of function
    in myelofibrosis (MF) patients with MPO deficiency is associated a homozygous CALR mutation and also deficiency in eosinophilic peroxidase (EPX
    constitutional       gain of function
    is associated with the development of obesity
  • to Kawasaki disease (KD)
  • to gastric cancer
  • Variant & Polymorphism SNP
  • G allele of MPO -463G>A polymorphism is a potential genetic marker for KD risk
  • MPO gene polymorphism MPO-463 G/G genotype is associated with susceptibility of gastric cancer
  • Candidate gene
  • may potentially be used as an imaging biomarker of cerebral aneurysm instability
  • is an early biomarker of inflammation associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in obese children at the prepubertal age
  • Therapy target
    peroxidase inhibitors may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of angiogenesis related diseases driven by inflammation
    may serve as a potential new target of treatment in atrial fibrillation
  • Mpo-deficient mice were protected from atrial fibrillation, which was reversed when MPO was restored
  • Mpo deficiency upregulates the expression of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mouse neutrophils
  • in diabetic rat aortas, both Mpo expresion and NADPH oxidase activity were increased while the endothelial function was simultaneously impaired