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Symbol TNF contributors: mct/pgu - updated : 24-06-2017
HGNC name tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2)
HGNC id 11892
Type ubiquitous
   expressed in (based on citations)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Cardiovascularheart   moderately
Digestiveintestinelarge intestinecolon lowly
 pharynx   moderately
Lymphoid/Immunelymph node   highly
Reproductivefemale systemplacenta  lowly
 male systemprostate  highly
Respiratorylung   highly
Urinarybladder   moderately
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Connective   moderately
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion blood
  • an extracellular C terminus, cleaved by ADAM17 to release the soluble 17kDa TNF alpha molecule
  • conjugated GlycoP
    mono polymer homomer , trimer
    isoforms Precursor synthesized as a transmembrane protein; the active signal is its ectodomain, which is shed from cells after cleavage by an ADAM family metalloprotease, ADAM17
    interspecies homolog to rattus Tnf (79.74 pc)
    homolog to murine Tnf (80.17 pc)
  • tumor necrosis factor family
  • CATEGORY immunity/defense , signaling cytokine
        plasma membrane
    text type 2 membrane protein
    basic FUNCTION
  • potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion
  • potent proinflammatory cytokine involved in the cachexia
  • enhancing insulin resistance in peripheral tissues of cancer patients
  • mediating neuronal death in injured brain (by inducing resistance to the protective effect of IGF1)
  • involved in inflammatory and immune responses
  • stimulating the sphingomyelinase (SMPD1)
  • TNFalpha-induced ROS, cause oxidation and inhibition of JNK-inactivating phosphatases
  • critical cytokine mediating the downstream antiresorptive effects of TSH on the skeleton
  • inducing human follicular dendritic cells (FDC)proliferation by upregulated C8orf4 (TC1)
  • having a direct effect on small bowel iron transporter expression and function, leading to an inhibition of iron transport
  • mediates tumor angiogenesis through dysregulated FRAP1 signaling caused by suppression of TSC1 by IKBKB (revealing a novel mechanism of inflammation-mediated tumor angiogenesis)
  • significantly increased IL15-driven NK cell differentiation by increasing the expression of transcription factors that play crucial roles in NK cell maturation and inducing the NF-kappaB activity
  • through the activation of RFK, enhances the incorporation of FAD in NADPH oxidase enzymes, a critical step for the assembly and activation of NADPH oxidase
  • may contribute to mammary gland involution post lactation by, among other activities, eliciting LIF expression through ERK1/2 and AP1 activation (
  • activates both canonical and alternative NFKB signaling pathways in a time-dependent manner in skeletal muscle cells
  • its signaling maintains the ability of cortical synapses to express synaptic scaling
  • modulates prolonged NFE2L2-induced gene expression, which in turn regulates TNF-induced inflammatory responses
  • key regulator of bone matrix properties and composition that also inhibits terminal osteoblast differentiation
  • inhibits NPNT expression through the NFKB signaling pathway and down-regulation of NPNT influences the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF
  • importance of TNF in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus
  • potential role of accrued changes in DNA methylation in the development of age-related inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, in which TNF is a pivotal mediator
  • displays pathogenic activities in many autoimmune disorders
  • TNF promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP9 expression through activation of AKT1/ MTOR, but not CRTC2 signaling
  • LEP, RETN, TNF may have differentiating roles in the pathogenesis of Systemic sclerosis (SSc)
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    cell life, cell death/apoptosis
  • hot responses against pathogens, NF-kappa B signaling pathway
  • a component
    small molecule
  • OCT1 and NFKB
  • binding to LITAF
  • IL1A stimulates cardiac myofibroblasts (CMF) to express IL1B, TNF, and IL6 via specific signaling pathways
  • TNF, IL6, and leptin, which have been implicated in insulin sensitivity regulation, regulate the expression of STEAP4
  • TNF enhances the WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway by inducing MSX2 expression, which in turn suppresses adipocytic differentiation
  • promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression
  • TNFSF12 and TNF, downregulate Klotho expression through an NFKB-dependent mechanism
  • interaction with CASP8 (critical function of caspase-8 in regulating intestinal homeostasis and in protecting intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from TNF-induced necroptotic cell death)
  • intreracting with UBD (plays an important role in mediating the function of TNF during tumorigenesis by inducing cell cycle deregulation and chromosomal instability, and by inhibiting apoptosis
  • RHBDF2, a proteolytically inactive member of the rhomboid family, is required for TNF release
  • can stimulate various chemotactic cytokines, including TNF and play a critical role in macrophage chemotaxis
  • TNF promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) expression
  • MTOR but not CRTC2 is required for TNF-induced RPE cell migration
  • omentin inhibited TNF-activated signal pathway of NFKB1 by preventing NFKB1 inhibitory protein (NFKBIA) degradation and NFKB1/DNA binding activity
  • correlation between ADM and TNF that could hypothesise the existence of a complex interaction between ADM and this inflammatory cytokine
  • TNF caused a significant suppression of a dual specificity phosphatase, DUSP4, that regulates ERK1/2 activation
  • up-regulates endometrial epithelial cell migration and MFGE8 production, which are critical steps required for the endometrial changes during menstrual cycle as well as during embryonic attachment and invasion
  • TNF-induced apoptosis leads to CASP8-dependent PAWR-cleavage followed by nuclear accumulation of the C-terminal PAWR (132-340) fragment, which then induces apoptosis
  • TNF-mediated suppression of steroidogenesis involves HDAC7 in Leydig cells
  • TNF activates HUWE1 by inducing the dissociation of HUWE1 from its inhibitor CDKN2A
  • TNF confers cardioprotection through ectopic expression of keratins KRT8 and KRT18
  • CHRM3-induced activation of MAPK14 might contribute to the maintenance of epithelial barrier function through down-regulation of TNF signalling and activation of EGFR
  • TNF drives CCL4 expression in THP-1 monocytic cells/macrophages via the activation of SAPK/JNK and NFKB1 pathways
  • TNF regulates the induction of MACC1 via RELA and the transcription factor JUN in Colorectal cancer cells
  • cell & other
    induced by CREBBP in stimulated T cells
    IL1 beta
    repressed by LRRFIP1
    IL10 (inhibits transcription elongation of the human TNF gene in primary macrophages)
    Other regulated by PRKR in epithelial cells
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in DM1 could contribute to the muscle wasting and insulin resistance that are characteristic of myotonic dystrophy
    constitutional     --over  
    modulates some catabolic features of TNF in chondrocytes
    constitutional     --over  
    in glomerulus and tubule of class III and IV lupus nephritis
    constitutional     --over  
    with TNF, TNFSF13B, TNFSF13 in Behcet disease
  • to narcolepsy, cardiac sarcoidosis and systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis,
  • vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease
  • to cerebral malaria, to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  • severe sepsis following burn injury
  • to myasthenia gravis
  • childhood asthma
  • to rheumatoid arthritis
  • to systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Variant & Polymorphism SNP
  • a common polymorphism in the promoter region (C->A) associated with reduced circulating levels of TNF308G>A (asthma)-promoter polymorphism-857c in IBD
  • SNP associated with severe sepsis following burn injury
  • Candidate gene
    Therapy target antibodies specific as therapeutic targets in rheumatoid arthritis
    artificial modulation of TNF production could be a promising therapeutic approach to Fanconi anemia
    antibodies specific as therapeutic targets in rheumatoid arthritis