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FLASH GENE
Symbol GEM contributors: mct/npt - updated : 16-06-2015
HGNC name GTP binding protein overexpressed in skeletal muscle
HGNC id 4234
EXPRESSION
Type widely
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Lymphoid/Immunespleen   lowly
 thymus   lowly
Nervousnervespinal nervesciatic   Rattus norvegicus
Reproductivemale systemtestis  lowly
Urinarykidney   moderately
tissue
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Epithelialbarrier/lining   
Lymphoid    
Muscularstriatumskeletal  
cells
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Cardiovascularendothelial cell
NervousSchawnn cell Rattus norvegicus
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
physiological period
cell cycle     cell cycle, G1
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • G3-GTP binding domain
  • a RAS-related domain and a membrane-association motif
  • a 12-amino acid fragment in the C terminus found to be crucial for and sufficient to produce Ca(v)beta-dependent inhibition, suggesting that this region forms an inhibitory site
  • a three-AA motif in the core was also found to be critical, possibly forming another inhibitory site
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Gem (95.59 pc)
    intraspecies homolog to RAD1
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • small GTPase superfamily
  • Ras/Gem/Kir (RGK) family
  • Rad, Rem, Rem2, Gem/Kir (RGK) family of small GTP-binding proteins
  • CATEGORY signaling cytokine
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytoskeleton,microtubule,mitotic spindle
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleoplasm,nuclear bodies
    basic FUNCTION
  • cell sprouting and reorganization of actin skeleton
  • possibly participating in receptor-mediated signal transduction at the plasma membrane
  • plays a role in regulating voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and cytoskeletal reorganization
  • endogenous GEM down-regulates the level of active RHOA and actin stress fibers
  • plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling.
  • small GTP-binding protein that plays a role in regulating Ca(2+) channels and cytoskeletal remodeling in interphase cells
  • spindle-associated protein and is required for proper mitotic progression
  • involved in regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity and inhibition of Rho kinase-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization, such as stress fiber formation and neurite retraction
  • plays an important role in cell-to-cell viral transmission
  • small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein, involved in the regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity and cytoskeleton reorganization
  • plays a crucial role in the regulation of cortical actin cytoskeleton that undergoes active remodeling during mitosis
  • new role of GEM/GMIP/RHOA signaling in cortical actin regulation during early mitotic stages
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell organization/biogenesis
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    text cell shape
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
  • RHOA GTPase is an important effector of GEM/GMIP signaling
  • a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule nucleotide,
  • GTP
  • protein
  • KIF9
  • binding Ca2+/calmodulin promoting the cytoplasmic localization of GEM
  • KPNA1 binds to Kir/GEM, and its depletion using RNA interference impairs nuclear translocation of this RGK protein
  • GTP-bound GEM interacts with the membrane-cytoskeleton linker protein Ezrin in its active state, and GEM binds to active Ezrin in cells
  • interacting directly with the beta subunit (CACNB1) and then inhibiting high voltage activated Ca2+ channel activities
  • GEM contributes to the mitotic progression by maintaining correct spindle length through the kinesin KIF9
  • regulation of spindle positioning by GEM involves its downstream effector GMIP
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    induced by mitogens
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    leads to stress fiber disruption, actin and cell shape remodeling and neurite elongation in interphase cells
    constitutional        
    loss of GEM leads to misaligned chromosomes and prometaphase delay
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion