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FLASH GENE
Symbol STAR contributors: mct - updated : 08-06-2016
HGNC name steroidogenic acute regulatory protein
HGNC id 11359
EXPRESSION
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Endocrineadrenal glandcortex   
Nervousbrain   highly
Reproductivefemale systemplacenta   
 female systemovarycorpus luteum  
 male systemtestis   
Urinarykidney    
tissue
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Epithelialsecretoryglandularendocrine 
cell lineage
cell lines oligodendrogliomas and malignant glial tumor cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
physiological period pregnancy
Text placenta
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • one start domain
  • HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
    CATEGORY transport carrier
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria,interspace
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria,matrix
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
    text stabilized at the outer mitochondrial membrane by cholesterol to initiate its massive import into mitochondria
    basic FUNCTION
  • increasing the flux of cholesterol into mitochondria and enhanced resorption of cholesterol from sterol-rich donor membranes
  • also involved in the activity of the mitochondrial cholesterol metabolizing enzymes
  • mediating rapid increase in pregnenolone synthesis by tropic hormones
  • mitochondrial matrix protein, acts on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) to facilitate the movement of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane via an unknown mechanism
  • acting on the outside of mitochondria to stimulate the steroidogenesis regulated by CEBPB and repressed by DAX1
  • plays an important role in the maintenance of intracellular lipid homeostasis
  • plays an important role in macrophage and foam cell apoptotic processing, which may provide a potential method for preventing atherosclerosis
  • mediates the transport of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane, the process of which is the rate-limiting step for steroidogenesis
  • STAR and STARD6 bind cholesterol, but no cholesterol binding could be detected for STARD5
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    steroidogenesis, regulated and rate limiting step
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • stimulating cholesterol 27 hydroxylase activity
  • STAR xpression level increased by STS
  • cholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and ceramides are ligands for STAR/STARD3/STARD5, STARD5, PCTP/STARD10, STARD10 and COL4A3BP, respectively
  • differential cholesterol binding of the two most closely related START domain proteins STAR and STARD3
  • interacting with UBE2I and FOXL2 (UBE2I-mediated sumoylation at lysine 25 of FOXL2 is required for transcriptional repression of the STAR gene and may be responsible for controlling the development of ovarian follicles)
  • both PDE8A and PDE8B play essential roles to maintain low cAMP levels, thereby suppressing resting steroidogenesis by keeping cholesterol-ester hydrolase (CEH)/hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) inactive and STAR protein expression low
  • AKAP1 interacts with STAR mRNA in a dibutyryl-cAMP-stimulated human steroidogenic adrenocortical carcinoma cell line
  • to prevent mitochondrial impairment, STAR proteolysis is executed by at least 2 mitochondrial proteases, ie, the matrix LONP1 and the inner membrane complexes of the metalloproteases AFG3L2 and SPG7/paraplegin
  • GPLD1 mediates STAR protein and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) expression via increasing the phosphorylation (activation) of their regulatory transcription factors
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    repressed by sterol depletion (methyl beta-cyclodextrin), repressing STAR expression
    Other regulated by its rate of mitochondrial import (inhibition of the activity in mitochondrial importation)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) CLAH
    related resource MITOP database
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in malignant glial tumors in growth
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS