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FLASH GENE
Symbol PTMA contributors: mct - updated : 09-11-2016
HGNC name prothymosin, alpha (gene sequence 28)
HGNC id 9623
EXPRESSION
Type ubiquitous
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Digestivepharynx   highly
 stomach   moderately
Nervousbrain     Homo sapiens
 brainlimbic systemhippocampusdentate gyruspredominantly Homo sapiensAdult
Olfactory (smell)olfactory bulb     Homo sapiensAdult
Reproductivemale systemtestis    Rattus norvegicus
Skin/Tegumentskin   moderately
Urinarykidney    
tissue
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Lymphoid    
cells
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Nervousastrocyte Homo sapiens
Nervousmicroglia Homo sapiens
Nervousneuron Homo sapiens
Reproductivespermatozoa Rattus norvegicus
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion highly in lymph
at STAGE
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES acid Hydrophilic
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • a majority of acidic residues clustered in the central domain ressembling an histone-binding domain
  • a C terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS)
  • conjugated PhosphoP , Other
    HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • pro/parathymosin family
  • CATEGORY immunity/defense , regulatory , structural protein
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytoskeleton,microtubule,mitotic spindle
    intracellular,nucleus,nucleoplasm
    text
  • localized in mitotic spindle during mitosis
  • was strictly localized in the nuclei of neurons, while it was found in the cytosolic space of astroglial and microglial processes and cell body in the adult brain
  • localized in the nuclei of neurons, while it is found in both nuclei and cytoplasm in the astrocytes and microglia of adult brain
  • basic FUNCTION
  • acting as a potential modulator of the interaction of histone 1 with chromatin
  • may mediate immune function by conferring resistance to certain opportunistic infections
  • PTMA specific localization in the heads of spermatids and epididymal spermatozoa, associated with the acrosome system, supports the hypothesis of a direct function in male germ cells
  • nuclear protein involved in cell proliferation and differentiation
  • conservation of PTMA distribution in vertebrate male gametes, strongly supporting a role for this polypeptide in their physiology
  • might play an important role in the progression of Colorectal cancer
  • nuclear oncoprotein-transcription factor essential for cell cycle progression and proliferation
  • role in the development of insulin resistance
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell cycle, progression
    nucleotide, chromatin organization, remodeling
    nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    text
  • regulation of progression through cell cycle
  • chromosome decondensation in vitro, not specifically related to immune response
  • PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • acetylation
  • is a component of a linker histone chaperone
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA covalently linked to a small RNA of about 20 nucleotides
    small molecule
    protein
  • histone I
  • interacting with histones H3, H2A, H2B and H4
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    induced by mitogen stimulation
    Other regulated by c-myc
    phosphorylation of PTMA is required for its antiapoptotic activity, but it does not affect its nuclear import
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    in gastric adenocarcinoma
    constitutional     --over  
    in Alzheimer Disease
    tumoral     --over  
    in several human malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
    tumoral     --over  
    by hypomethylation in gastrointestinal tumors when compared with the peritumoral tissue
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • could be used as an immunohistochemical biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma to detect patients with a high risk of recurrence
  • assessment of both PTMA and mutant TP53 expression can help predict colon cancer prognosis
  • Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    diabetetype 2 
    is a potential novel therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes
    respiratoryCF (mucoviscidosis) 
    has strong potential to be an efficacious single-molecule-based therapeutic agent for CF
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
    inducing transformation of rodent fibroblasts in vitro