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FLASH GENE
Symbol GFER contributors: mct - updated : 20-11-2010
HGNC name growth factor, augmenter of liver regeneration
HGNC id 4236
EXPRESSION
Rna function ALR mRNA present in muscular tissue
Type widely
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Digestiveliver   highly Homo sapiens
Reproductivemale systemtestis   
tissue
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Muscularstriatumskeletal highly Homo sapiens
cells
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Digestivehepatocyte Homo sapiens
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • a CxxC motif
  • mono polymer homomer , heteromer , dimer
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to yeast S.cerevisiae ERV1gene
    homolog to Drosophila CG12534
    homolog to murine Gfer
    homolog to C.elegans F56C11.3
    intraspecies homolog to ERV1
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • ERV1/ALR family
  • CATEGORY enzyme , signaling growth factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria,interspace
    intracellular,nucleus
    text
  • localized in the mitochondrial inter-membrane space or associated to mitochondrial cristae
  • basic FUNCTION
  • a versatile hepatotrophic growth factor and a cellular thiol oxidase
  • being essential for the oxidative phosphorylation, the maintenance of mitochondrial genomes, and the cell division cycle
  • involved in the synthesis or stability of the nuclear and mitochondrial transcripts (in actively regenerating cells)
  • involved in oncogenesis (in the liver)
  • having a function in liver regeneration and spermatogenesis
  • critically important for the survival of hepatocytes by its association with mitochondria and regulation of ATP synthesis
  • is thought to be one of the factors responsible for the extraordinary regenerative capacity of the liver
  • stimulates hepatocyte proliferation and up-regulates mt-DNA expression and ATP production
  • may be an important factor involved in the molecular events that trigger neuromuscular diseases
  • potentially, plays an essential pro-survival role in the maintenance of ESC pluripotency by preserving the structural and functional integrity of their mitochondria, through modulation of the key mitochondrial fission factor DNM1L
  • prosurvival role in maintaining mitochondrial fission-fusion dynamics in pluripotent ESCs (embryonic stem cell)
  • hepatotrophic growth factor which has been shown to stimulate hepatic regeneration after partial hepatectomy
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell cycle, division
    cell life, differentiation
    nucleotide, genomic integrity
    nucleotide, transcription
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS reproduction/sex
    text spermatogenesis
    PATHWAY
    metabolism energetic
    signaling
    a component
  • disulfide relay system in the IMS (intermembrane space) has been identified which consists of two essential components, the sulfhydryl oxidase GFER and the redox-regulated import receptor CHCHD4
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • BNIPL
  • mediates the oxidation of CHCHD4 in a disulfide transfer reaction
  • binds FAD in a helix-rich domain that presents a CXXCC disulfide proximal to the isoalloxazine ring of the flavin
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    Other regulated by FOXA2, and this regulation may be amplified by IL6
    regulated by EGF (crucial regulatory mechanism for EGF in GFER transcription within the promoter proximal region)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) CTMHD
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS