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FLASH GENE
Symbol PENK contributors: mct - updated : 08-09-2015
HGNC name proenkephalin
HGNC id 8831
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
2 - 1239 30.7 267 - 2007 17503481
4 - 1354 - 267 - 2007 17503481
- - - - - predominantly within the adrenal medulla, within the chromaffin granules - 23395721
  • enkephalin-containing peptide
  • has classic opioid analgesia effects
  • involved with immune cell modulation in the white blood circulatory biocompartment of blood.
  • EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart     Homo sapiens
    Digestiveintestine     Homo sapiens
    Endocrineneuroendocrinepituitary  highly
    Hearing/Equilibriumear   highly
    Nervousbrain     Homo sapiens
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectivebone  highly
    Muscularstriatumskeletal   Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • N terminus with six conserved cysteines throught to be involved in disulfide bonding
  • four copies of met-enkephalin, two of met-enkephalin extended sequences and one copy of leu-eukephalin
  • isoforms Precursor
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Penk1
    Homologene
    FAMILY opioids neuropeptides precursors family
    CATEGORY signaling neurotransmitter
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • play a role in a number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress
  • involved in neurite outgrowth, early neuronal cell development, neuropeptide signaling/synthesis and neuronal receptor (Tondreau 2008)
  • endogenous opioid polypeptide hormone that acts on specific opiate receptors found on nerve and mucosal cells, and on various cells in the immune system
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • unique function of CTSV for producing PENK and NPY neuropeptides required for neurotransmission in health and neurological diseases
  • role for cathepsin H as an aminopeptidase for PENK and galanin peptide neurotransmitter production
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --low  
    by hypermethylation in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
    constitutional     --over  
    in keratinocytes in psoriatic skin
    Susceptibility
  • not contributing to the susceptibility of bipolar affective disorder
  • to opioid dependence
  • Variant & Polymorphism other polymorphisms increasing the risk of opioid dependence
    Candidate gene useful indicator of the potential malignancy of epithelial cells of the pancreas
    Marker
  • marker predicting acute kidney injury in cardiac surgery patients
  • enhanced plasma PENK could be a useful, complementary tool to predict short- or long-term clinical outcome after severe traumatic brain injury
  • PENK level may be a useful, complementary tool to predict mortality and functional outcome at 6 months after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    dermatologyskin 
    anti-PENK drugs in addition to current antipsoriatic therapies might be of value in treating this common chronic skin disease
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS