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FLASH GENE
Symbol PENK contributors: mct - updated : 13-11-2007
HGNC name proenkephalin
HGNC id 8831
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
2 - 1239 30.7 267 - Jiao (2007)
EXPRESSION
Type widely
constitutive of
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Endocrineneuroendocrinepituitary  highly
Hearing/Equilibriumear   highly
tissue
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Connectivebone  highly
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • N terminus with six conserved cysteines throught to be involved in disulfide bonding
  • four copies of met-enkephalin, two of met-enkephalin extended sequences and one copy of leu-eukephalin
  • isoforms Precursor
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Penk1
    Homologene
    FAMILY opioids neuropeptides precursors family
    CATEGORY signaling neurotransmitter
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • play a role in a number of physiologic functions, including pain perception and responses to stress
  • involved in neurite outgrowth, early neuronal cell development, neuropeptide signaling/synthesis and neuronal receptor (Tondreau 2008)
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
    cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --low  
    by hypermethylation in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
    Susceptibility
  • not contributing to the susceptibility of bipolar affective disorder
  • to opioid dependence
  • Variant & Polymorphism other polymorphisms increasing the risk of opioid dependence
    Candidate gene useful indicator of the potential malignancy of epithelial cells of the pancreas
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS