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FLASH GENE
Symbol ATF2 contributors: mct/pgu - updated : 12-07-2017
HGNC name activating transcription factor 2
HGNC id 784
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
- - 3300 60 463 - 2003 12909347
  • an incomplete N-terminal domain, and a novel C-terminal region, but an intact bZIP domain
  • a 97-bp internal deletion in the coding region, and a unique 3' region
  • potential regulator of the human DNA polymerase promoter
  • 14 - 2117 54.4 505 - 2009 19331149
    - - - - - - 2005 15691875
    role in the myometrium
    EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    blood / hematopoieticspleen   highly
    Digestiveliver   highly
    Nervousbrain   highly
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Lymphoid    
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein
  • zinc finger motif
  • proline-rich motif
  • mono polymer homomer , heteromer , dimer
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies homolog to murine Atf2
    intraspecies homolog to ATF7
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • bZIP family
  • ATF subfamily
  • CATEGORY regulatory , transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
    intracellular,nucleus,chromatin/chromosome
    basic FUNCTION
  • regulates transcription in response to stress and growth factor stimuli
  • mediating the E1A responsiveness
  • acting as a tumor supressor gene in lung cancer
  • playing an important role in the mediation of cellular stress responses, development and transformation
  • having a suppressor activity in skin tumor formation
  • activates the transcription of apoptosis-related genes
  • may be a key regulator of the insulin promoter possibly stimulating activity in response to extracellular signals
  • transcription factor important for normal cellular development and survival
  • in cooperation with mutated oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, can also elicit tumor suppressor function
  • may be a key regulator of the insulin promoter possibly stimulating activity in response to extracellular signals
  • importance of transcriptionally active ATF2 in melanoma development through fine-tuning of MITF expression (
  • ATF2 was required for other endothelial cell outputs, such as cell migration and tubulogenesis
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA binding
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • cAMP response element of many viral and cellular proteins
  • CNTN2 (for activation HTLV-1 promoter)
  • DDIT3
  • interacting with NCOA6 by its N-terminal transactivation domain to induce target gene transcription during granulocytic differentiation
  • binding CRE2 site of INS
  • binds directly to both MAPKAP1 and MAPK14
  • regulating ATM activation by control of KAT5 stability and activity
  • interacts with beta-cell-enriched transcription factors, MAFA, PDX1, and NEUROD1, and activates insulin gene transcription
  • ATF2 likely functionally required for VEGFA-stimulated endothelial VCAM1 gene expression
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    activated by virus
    mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways
    stress and growth factors that activate ATF2 and ATF7 mainly via sequential phosphorylation of two conserved threonine residues in their activation domain
    inhibited by polyamines (negatively regulate ATF2 expression posttranscriptionally and polyamine depletion stabilizes ATF2 mRNA by enhancing the interaction of the 3prime-untranslated region (UTR) of ATF2 with cytoplasmic ELAVL1)
    Other phosphorylated by MAPK14/Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase
    phosphorylated at Serine 121 by protein kinase C (controls c-Jun-mediated activation of transcription)
    the MEKK/MKK7/JNK2 module is responsible for ATF2 phosphorylation
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --low  
    in skin carcinogenesis
    tumoral     --over  
    associated with prolonged survival in mammary carcinoma
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS