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FLASH GENE
Symbol IGF2 contributors: mct/npt/pgu - updated : 22/10/2008
HGNC name insulin-like growth factor 2 (somatomedin A)
HGNC id 5466
RNA
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
5 splicing 5139 - 180 paternally expressed, not limited to placenta 2008 18287964
- splicing 2864 - 200 highly restricted tissue expression profiles including the pancreas 2008 18287964
use the INS promoter
- splicing 828 - 200 highly restricted tissue expression profiles including the pancreas 2008 18287964
5 - 5165 - 180 - 2008 18287964
EXPRESSION
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
organ(s)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Digestiveliver    
Endocrineadrenal gland    
Reproductivefemale systemplacenta   
 female systembreastmammary gland  
 male systemprostate   
Respiratoryrespiratory tractlarynx   
cells
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Digestivehepatocyte
cell lineage
cell lines
fluid/secretion
at STAGE
physiological period embryo, fetal, pregnancy
Text placenta, widely in embryo
IMPRINTING maternally
text telomeric imprinting domain at 11p15, containing ASCL2, H19 and IGF2, since the preimplantation 8 cells stage embryos
PROTEIN
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURE
motifs/domains
  • protein homolog to INS retaining the C peptide and having an extended C terminus
  • HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • insulin family
  • CATEGORY signaling hormone
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • potent mitogen influenced by placental lactogen and may be playing a role in fetal development
  • involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis as a paracrine inducer of 12-lipoxygenase
  • having the ability to strongly stimulate osteoclastogenesis by regulating PPBP expression in stromal cells and CXCL12 expression in osteoblastic cells
  • AKT1 and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) regulate placentation and fetal/postnatal development (r
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, proliferation/growth
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS development
    text regulation, prenatal skeletal and muscular development
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • GDF2 crosstalks with IGF2 through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs
  • concomitant MYOD1 and IGF2 inactivation accelerates differentiation of a brown preadipocyte cell line and induces lipid accumulation and increased UCP1 and PRDM16 expression
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    induced by GH
    Other imprinted expression is controlled by the imprinting control region 1 (ICR1)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) BWS , SRS11 , IH
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral   LOI    
    biallelic expression in fetal brain, in Wilms tumor in colorectal cancer
    tumoral     --over  
    in non islet tumor hypoglycemia in overgrowth syndrome
    constitutional     --other  
    highly expressed in both proliferating and involuting phase hemangioma, without loss of imprinting, but is not detectable in other vascular lesions such as pyogenic granuloma, venous malformation, lymphatic malformation, or in normal infant skin
    tumoral     --over  
    Duplication of the paternal IGF2 allele in trisomy 11 and elevated expression levels of IGF2 mRNA in congenital mesoblastic nephroma of the cellular or mixed type.
    tumoral   LOI    
    leading to abnormal activation of the normally silent maternal allele, and associated with a 5-fold increased frequency of colorectal neoplasia
    tumoral   LOI    
    in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma
    tumoral imprinting      
    gain of imprinting in hepatocellular carcinoma
    tumoral       loss of function
    by hypomethylation (is highly prevalent in cancer and is an acquired somatic epimutation and therefore a useful indicator of breast and colorectal cancer)
    constitutional       loss of function
    concomitant of MYOD1 and IGF2 accelerates differentiation of a brown preadipocyte cell line and induces lipid accumulation and increased UCP1 and PRDM16 expression
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    osteoarticularboneostéoporosis
    combination of GDF2 and IGF2 may be explored as an effective bone-regeneration agent to treat large segmental bony defects, nonunion fracture, and/or osteoporotic fracture
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
    small placenta in mice knock-out Igf2-/-