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Symbol IL32 contributors: mct - updated : 26-03-2020
HGNC name interleukin 32
HGNC id 16830
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 4.13 kb     6 Exon(s)
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
Map see MEFV
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
8 - 929 21.6 188 - 2019 31201646
  • variant 1 or IL32 beta
  • isoform B or IL-32beta
  • IL-32beta isoform may be beneficial for thyroid cancer (TC) cell survival through induction of the pro-survival cytokine IL8
  • 8 - 691 14.7 131 - 2018 29286122
  • variant 4 or IL32 alpha
  • lacking an alternate exon in the 5'UTR and containing an alternate intron within the last exon of the coding region
  • nearly without activity in inducing macrophage differentiation
  • may be a potential predictor of anti-angiogenesis therapy and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma
  • 6 - 758 19.2 168 - 2018 30115930
  • variant 5 or IL32 gamma
  • lacking an alternate exon in the 5'UTR and an in-frame exon in the coding region
  • 20-50 times more active in inducing monocyte differentiation than the IL-32 alpha isoform with two coding exon deletions
  • inhibits viral enhancer activities by downregulating liver-enriched transcription factors
  • plays a protective role for bone loss, providing clinical evidence of a negative correlation between IL32g and DKK1 as bone metabolic markers
  • 6 - 726 19.2 168 - 2019 31201646
  • different in the 5'UTR and lacking an alternate in-frame exon in the coding region
  • isoform C
  • 5 - 743 20.6 179 - 2019 31201646
  • lacking two alternate in-frame exons in the 5'UTR and an alternate in-frame exon in the coding region
  • isoform D
  • 7 splicing 865 21.6 188 - 2019 31201646
  • containing an alternate in-frame splice site in the 5'UTR
  • isoform B
  • 7 - 862 21.6 188 - 2019 31201646
  • lacking an alternate exon in the 5'UTR
  • isoform B
  • 7 - 841 21.6 188 - 2019 31201646
  • multiples differences in the 5'UTR
  • isoform B
  • 6 - 1151 - 188 - 2019 31201646
    8 - 908 - 188 - 2019 31201646
    6 - 1003 - 234 - 2019 31201646
    6 - 805 - 188 - 2019 31201646
    7 - 634 - 111 - 2019 31201646
    6 - 1000 - 234 - 2019 31201646
    6 - 802 - 168 - 2019 31201646
    6 - 802 - 168 - 2019 31201646
    6 - 819 - 178 - 2019 31201646
    6 - 956 - 234 - 2019 31201646
    7 - 818 - 188 - 2019 31201646
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart   highly
    Digestiveesophagus   highly
     stomach   highly
    Urinarykidney   highly
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticmonocyte Homo sapiens
    Lymphoid/Immunemacrophage Homo sapiens
    Lymphoid/Immunenatural killer Homo sapiens
    Lymphoid/ImmuneT cell Homo sapiens
    Skin/Tegumentkeratinocyte Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion secreted protein
    at STAGE
  • three potential N-myristoylation sites
  • one N-glycosylation site
  • an RGD motif, which potentially activates procaspase-3 intracellular and or binds to integrins
    CATEGORY signaling cytokine
        plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • potentially involved in cell adhesion
  • may play a role in lymphocyte activation
  • inducing the production of TNFalpha from macrophage cells
  • playing a role in the pathophysiology of clonal myeloid diseases
  • not only contributes to host responses through the induction of proinflammatory cytokines but also directly affects specific immunity by differentiating monocytes into macrophage-like cells
  • may be playing a role in inflammatory bowel diseases
  • IL32 may play an important role in inflammatory responses and pancreatic cancer growth
  • IL32 is induced by microbial ligands through TLR-mediated innate signaling pathways, suggesting an important role of corneal epithelium in inflammatory disease
  • proinflammatory cytokine that participates in responses to viral infection
  • multifaceted cytokine with a role in infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, and it exerts diverse functions, including aggravation of inflammation and inhibition of virus propagation
  • critical regulator of endothelial cell (EC) functions, and also possesses angiogenic properties
  • role for this versatile cytokine in pulmonary arterial hypertension and neoplastic diseases
  • IL32 is involved in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation
  • is known to act as a proinflammatory cytokine and is likely involved in several chronic inflammatory diseases
  • IL32 is a molecular link between in keratinocytes (KCs) and Langerhans cells (LCs)in healthy skin, provoking LC migration from the epidermis to the dermis prior to their migration to the draining lymph nodes
  • is a cytokine involved in proinflammatory immune responses to bacterial and viral infections
  • act as a potent inducer of cell migration in several types of cancer
  • cytokine associated with higher risk of cardiovascular diseases in inflammatory environments
  • has a critical role in the pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell communication
    a component
    small molecule
  • IL32-mediated activity may be dependent on TNFRSF1A
  • IL32 binds to the extracellular domain of integrins and to intracellular proteins like paxillin and PTK2, suggesting a dual role for IL32 in integrin signaling
  • elevated IL32 levels during viral infection mediate antiviral effects by stimulating the expression of IFNL1
  • IL32 stimulation promotes the invasion and motility of osteosarcoma cells, possibly via the activation of AKT1 and the upregulation of MMP13 expression
  • feedback inhibition of IL15-mediated NK cell activity by IL32alpha
  • IL32 may increase TIMP3 expression via hypomethylation through inactivation of NFKB1 activity, and thereby reduce lung tumor growth
  • cell & other
    activated by TNF (TNF induces DNA demethylation-dependent and -independent activation of IL32 expression)
    induced by TNF and IFNG in hepatocytes, and inhibits the replication of HBV by acting intracellularly to suppress HBV transcription and replication
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue
    tumoral     --other  
    dysregulation in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative disorder
    tumoral     --other  
    expressed in human melanoma
    constitutional     --over  
    in atherosclerotic plaques of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients when compared with normal coronary arteries
    constitutional     --over  
    significantly higher in patients with Behçet disease
  • to rheumatoid arthritis
  • to Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • to Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • Variant & Polymorphism SNP
  • increase in serum levels of IL32 in accordance with additive effect of the presence of C allele in Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients
  • rs28372698 SNP was associated with the susceptibility to SLE
  • Candidate gene
  • IL32 could play a role in predicting response to treatment in rheumatoid arthritis
  • IL32 may serve as a marker for diagnosis of osteosarcoma
  • IL32 expression might be valuable as a biomarker for cancer
  • is a molecular marker of latent tuberculosis
  • Therapy target
    IL32 may increase TIMP3 expression via hypomethylation through inactivation of NFKB1 activity, and thereby reduce lung tumor growth
    could be considered as a therapeutic target in patients with NFALD
    therapeutic targets for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative disorder
    modulation of IL-32 alternative splicing could represent a novel strategy for the treatment of malignancies, in particular thyroid cancer
    may be a novel therapeutic target for airway inflammatory disease
    may serve for the treatment of osteosarcoma