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Symbol DNMT1 contributors: shn/mct - updated : 22-12-2016
HGNC name DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1
HGNC id 2976
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 61.73 kb     41 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Promoter
Binding site   transcription factor
text structure
  • promoter is a TATA-less promoter and therefore its transcriptional activity is highly dependent on the binding of transcription factors to the basal promoter region
  • E2F-binding site located within the transcription initiation region is critical for the regulation of DNMT1 transcription in proliferating cells via the E2F1/pRB pathway
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Map pter - D19S586 - D19S583 - DNMT1 - D19S584 - D19S906 - cen
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    41 - 5425 183 1632 - 2010 20081831
    also called DNMT1a
    40 splicing 5377 - 1616 less expressed 2010 20081831
  • also called DNMT1f
  • insertion of 48bp from intron 4 becoming exon 5a
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Hearing/Equilibriumear   highly
    Lymphoid/Immunelymph node   predominantly
     thymus   moderately
    Reproductivefemale systemuteruscervix highly
     female systembreastmammary gland moderately
    Skin/Tegumentskin   highly
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Epithelialbarrier liningepidermisstratum basalehighly
    cell lineage expressed in epidermal progenitor-containing cell populations and is lost during differentiation
    cell lines abundantly, in cell lines
    fluid/secretion moderately in blood, highly in lymph
    at STAGE
    cell cycle     cell cycle, S
    Text reduced to non detectable levels at the G0 phase of the cell cycle and dramatically induced upon entrance into the S-phase of the cell cycle
    text paternally expressed and methylated specifically on the maternal allele in the human placenta
  • N terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS), replication foci-targeting sequences and interacting with several proteins such as DMAP1, HDAC2 (histone deacetylase), PCNA and RB
  • the zinc binding region with the cysteine-rich (CXXC) motif, that bound specifically to unmethylated CpG dinucleotides, encompassing the N-terminus region of DNMT1 and cooperating with the catalytic domain for DNA methyltransferase activity
  • two BAH domains
  • a bromodomain
  • a C terminal region with five conserved motifs involved in catalytic activities, alternatively spliced, DNMT catalytic domain
    interspecies ortholog to DNMT1, Pan troglodytes
    ortholog to dnmt1, Danio rerio
    ortholog to Dnmt1, Rattus norvegicus
    ortholog to Dnmt1, Mus musculus
  • C5-methyltransferase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
  • replication fork
  • binds to mtDNA, proving the presence of mtDNMT1 in the mitochondrial matrix
  • basic FUNCTION
  • involved in the maintenance of DNA-methylation activities
  • required to maintain global methylation and aberrant CpG island methylation in cancers
  • playing a role in the mismatch repair gene
  • involved in the methylation maintenance transcription repression
  • acting as a putative mediator of the methylation process and cooperating with RB to repress transcription from promoters containing E2F binding sites
  • may be the enzyme primarily responsible for maintenance of the global methylation status of genomic DNA
  • contributing to the preservation of the correct organization of large heterochromatic regions
  • required for maintenance of bulk DNA methylation, and essential for maintenance of DNA methylation, proliferation, and survival of cancer cells
  • being responsible for maintaining methylation patterns established in development
  • regulates BAG-1 expression via insulator protein DNA-binding and chromatin dynamics by regulating histone dimethylation
  • responsible for the aberrant hypermethylation of CpG islands and the silencing of tumor suppressor genes
  • crucial transcription regulator for DNMT1
  • maintains DNA methylation patterns after cellular replication, and essential for epidermal progenitor cell function
  • acting as a maintenance methyltransferase, playing an essential role in the faithful propagation of the genomic methylation profile from mother to daughter cells following cell division
  • may participate in sensing DNA damage, in one of the cell-cycle checkpoints, or in both
  • acting as a regulator of genome integrity and as an early responder to DNA DSBs
  • recruited early and transiently to DSBs by multiple DNA damage-related interactions and that it plays a role in modulating the cellular response to DNA damage
  • both DNMT1 and UHRF1 coprecipitate with ubiquitin specific peptidase 7 (USP7), a de-ubiquitinating enzyme
  • appears to be capable of both initiating and maintaining cytosine methylation in the nucleus, and the lack of de novo methyltransferases in mitochondria implicates mtDNMT1 in both processes in this organelle
  • most prevalent DNA methyltransferase found in cells and which is responsible for maintaining the DNA methylation patterns once formed
  • link between DNMT1 insufficiency and genomic instability
  • DNA methyltransferase maintaining methylation patterns in development, and mediating transcriptional repression by direct binding to HDAC2
  • required for the differentiation of CD4+ into T regulatory cells
  • tethered to the DNA replication fork and is the major player in maintaining DNA methylation patterns during replication
  • DNMT3A, DNMT3B, DNMT1 roles in Ca(2+) ion-dependent biological processes, including the genome-wide/local DNA demethylation during early embryogenesis, cell differentiation, neuronal activity-regulated gene expression, and carcinogenesis
  • is required to maintain HbF silencing in primary human adult erythroid cells
  • role for DNMT1 in modulating the timing of differentiation and describe a novel ATP-citrate lyase (ACL)-miR148a-dependent mechanism for regulating DNMT1 during adipogenesis
  • key enzyme involved in the somatic inheritance of DNA methylation and thus plays a critical role in epigenomic stability
  • is critical for the prevention and maintenance of T-cell lymphomas and contributes to aberrant methylation by both de novo and maintenance methylation
  • MYB and BCL11A cooperate with DNMT1 to achieve developmental repression of embryonic and fetal beta-like globin genes in the adult erythroid environment
  • primary enzyme that maintains DNA methylation during replication
  • regulation of DNMT1 is critical for epigenetic control of many genes and for genome stability
  • is crucial during perinatal intestinal development
  • essential role in maintaining genomic stability during intestinal development and the establishment of intestinal crypts
  • responsible for propagating the DNA methylation patterns during DNA replication
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, chromatin organization, methylation
    nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS development , immunity/defense
    CDKN1A-EP300-DNMT1 pathway may play a pivotal role to ensure regulated DNMT1 expression and DNA methylation in mammalian cell division
    a component
  • complexing with RB1, E2E1, HDAC1 and BB1
  • also complexing with HDAC2, DMAP1
  • component of complexes containing SUV39H1
  • KAT5, UHRF1, HDAC1 and DNMT1 are present in the same macro-molecular complex and are partners for the epigenetic code inheritance
  • interaction of mtDNMT1 with mtDNA is potentially proportional to CpG density, supporting a functional role for mtDNMT1 in establishment and maintenance of mtDNA methylation
  • RNA
    small molecule
  • proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA
  • MBD2 and MBD3
  • HDAC1 and E2F1
  • cooperating with DNMT3A for de novo methylation of DNA
  • STAT3 and HDAC1 for epigenetic silencing of PTPN6 in various tumors
  • histone deacetylase 2, HDAC2 and DNA methyltransferase 1 associated protein 1, DMAP1
  • DNMT3a and DNMT3b
  • retinoblastoma protein, RB
  • SUV39H1 histone methyltransferase
  • methyl CpG binding protein 2, MECP2
  • regulator of G-protein signaling 6, RGS6
  • HESX1
  • CXXC finger 1 (PHD domain), CXXC1
  • SRA domain of SRA domain of ICBP90
  • AOF2 (demethylates and stabilizes DNMT1, thus providing a previously unknown mechanistic link between the histone and DNA methylation systems)
  • UHRF1 through SET and RING finger-associated (SRA) domain
  • NAA10 is an oncoprotein, but it contributes to oncogenesis through modulation of DNMT1 function
  • SETD7 regulates DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) activity in mammalian cells by promoting degradation of DNMT1 and thus allows epigenetic changes via DNA demethylation
  • binding of CDK5 to the N-terminal domain of DNMT1
  • USP7 is an interaction partner of DNMT1 and UHRF1
  • SIRT1 regulates the activities of DNMT1, a key enzyme responsible for DNA methylation
  • operates either as a functional intermediary or in cooperation with E2F1 inhibiting AR gene expression in a methylation independent manner
  • DNMT1 function in the regulatory response is controlled by NBN
  • DNMT1 directly interacts with the SET and RING finger-associated (SRA) domain of UHRF1 to facilitate accession of the catalytic center to hemi-methylated DNA
  • interaction with UHRF1 increased the specificity of DNMT1 for methylation of hemimethylated CpG sites)
  • interaction between DNMT1 and MBD4 is involved in controlling gene expression and responding to oxidative stress
  • NFKB1 inactivation diminished, whereas NFKB1 overexpression enhanced DNMT1 promoter activity and endogenous DNMT1 expression
  • RB1 maintains quiescence and prevents premature senescence through upregulation of DNMT1 in mesenchymal stromal cells
  • both DNMT1 and methyl-CpG-binding domain Protein 4 (MBD4) bind to the TNFRSF18
  • ZNF479 induced the expression of DNMT1, UHRF1, and mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) complex proteins (ASH2L and Menin), and increased tri-methylated histone H3 (H3K4me3) levels, but suppressed H3K4 (H3K4me2) di-methylation
  • cell & other
    activated by DMAP1 (activates DNMT1 preferentially at sites of homologous recombination repair)
    Phosphorylated by CDKs at Ser154 whichis important for enzymatic activity and protein stability of DNMT1
    Other SUMOylated which significantly enhances its methylase activity
    regulation through modifications mediated by AKT1 and SETD7, that affects cellular DNMT1 levels
    corresponding disease(s) HSANDHL , ADCADN
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in telencephalic GABAergic interneurons of schizophrenia brain
    tumoral       gain of function
    in leukemia
    constitutional     --low  
    by specific hypermethylation in placenta, and promoter methylation attenuates transcriptional activity in trophoblast cells
    tumoral     --low  
    responsible for induction of DDX53 drug-resistant cancer cells
    affect the DNA damage response (DDR) in the cell
    constitutional     --over  
    by hypomethylation involved in other autoimmune diseases such as lupus
    Susceptibility to autoimmune disease
    Variant & Polymorphism SNP increasing the risk of autoimmune disease
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    development of novel combination therapies that will exploit DNMT1 role not only as a maintenance methyltransferase, but also as a modulator of the DNA damage response, to more efficiently target tumor cells for destruction
  • Dnmt1 mutant mice with 90% of hypomethylated cortical and hippocampal cells in the dorsal forebrain from E13.5 on are viable but display severe neuronal cell death between E14.5
  • conditional mutant mice lacking Dnmt1 and Dnmt3 in forebrain excitatory neurons have abnormal long-term plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region with deficits in learning and memory