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Symbol IL1A contributors: mct - updated : 02-06-2015
HGNC name interleukin 1, alpha
HGNC id 5991
TYPE functioning gene
SPECIAL FEATURE component of a cluster
STRUCTURE 11.48 kb     7 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
MAPPING cloned Y linked Y status confirmed
Map see IL1RN
Physical map
ANAPC1 2q12.1 anaphase-promoting complex 1 (meiotic checkpoint regulator) MERTK 2q14.1 c-mer proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase FLJ14681 2q13 hypothetical protein FLJ14681 FLJ37440 2q13 hypothetical protein FLJ37440 LOC84524 2q13 zinc finger protein FLJ41410 2q13 FLJ41410 protein LOC389020 2 similar to RAN-binding protein 2-like 1 isoform 1; sperm membrane protein BS-63; RAN-binding protein 2-like 1 TTL 2q13 similar to RAN-binding protein 2-like 1 isoform 1; sperm membrane protein BS-63; RAN-binding protein 2-like 1 POLR1B 2q13 polymerase (RNA)1polypeptide B, 128kDa C2orf9 2q13 chromosome 2 open reading frame 9 SLC20A1 2q11-q14 solute carrier family 20 (phosphate transporter), member 1 FLJ40629 2q14.1 hypothetical protein FLJ40629 IL1A 2q13 interleukin 1, alpha IL1B 2q13 interleukin 1, beta IL1F7 2q12.1-q14.1 interleukin 1 family, member 7 (zeta) IL1F9 2q13 interleukin 1 family, member 9 IL1F6 2q12-q14.1 interleukin 1 family, member 6 (epsilon) IL1F8 2q12-q14.1 interleukin 1 family, member 8 (eta) IL1F5 2q12.1 interleukin 1 family, member 5 (delta) IL1F10 2q12 interleukin 1 family, member 10 (theta) IL1RN 2q13-q14.2 interleukin 1 receptor antagonist TIC 2q13 interleukin 1 receptor antagonist PAX8 2q12-q14 paired box gene 8 LOC391427 2 similar to Ig kappa chain precursor V region (orphon V108) - human  (fragment) CBWD2 2q13 COBW domain containing 2 FOXD4L1 2q13 COBW domain containing 2 LOC284964 2q14.1 similar to bA395L14.5 (novel phosphoglucomutase like protein) LOC389021 2 hypothetical gene supported by BC063555 MGC13005 2q14.1 hypothetical protein MGC13005 RPL23AP7 2q14 ribosomal protein L23a pseudogene 7 RABL2A 2q13 RAB, member of RAS oncogene family-like 2A bA395L14.12 2q14.1 u2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide A' pseudogene bA395L14.13 2q14.1 acrosin-like protease SLC35F5 2q14.1 solute carrier family 35, member F5 ACTR3 2q13 ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog (yeast)
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
7 - 2943 30.48 271 - -
Type restricted
   expressed in (based on citations)
SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Cardiovascularvessel   predominantly
Digestivemouth   moderately
 pharynx   moderately
Lymphoid/Immunelymph node   moderately
Reproductivemale systemtestis  moderately
Skin/Tegumentskin   moderately
SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Blood / hematopoietic   predominantly
SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
Blood/Hematopoieticplatelet Homo sapiens
Lymphoid/Immunemacrophage Homo sapiens
cell lineage
cell lines
physiological period fetal
  • lacks the N-terminal signal peptide
  • mono polymer monomer
    isoforms Precursor
    interspecies homolog to murine Il1a (62.26 pc)
    homolog to rattus Il1a (65.28 pc)
    intraspecies paralog to IL1AB
  • IL1 family
  • CATEGORY immunity/defense , signaling cytokine
  • endogenous IL1A is essentially found as a chromatin-associated nuclear protein in LPS-stimulated macrophages
  • basic FUNCTION
  • involved in the inflammatory response
  • stimulating osteoclastogenesis
  • inhibiting EPO gene expression
  • playing a crucial role in the regulation of a number of key cellular processes (potent mediator of bodys response to inflammation, microbial invasion, tissue injury, and immunological response)
  • is a key danger signal released from necrotic cells to trigger CXCL1 secretion and recruitment of neutrophils via IL1R/MYD88 on neighboring mesothelial cells
  • cell surface IL1A is an essential cell-autonomous regulator of the senescence-associated IL6/IL8 cytokine network
  • intracellular IL1A is a chromatin-associated cytokine and highly dynamic in the nucleus of living cells
  • in apoptotic cells, is retained within the chromatin fraction and is not released along with the cytoplasmic contents
  • platelets are a key source of IL1A and platelet activation of brain endothelium via IL1A is likely a critical step for the entry of white blood cells, major contributors to inflammation-mediated injury in the brain
  • is a critical regulator of blood-testis barrier (BTB) dynamics
  • IL1A, released from dying cells, initiates sterile inflammation by inducing recruitment of neutrophils
  • IL1B, IL1A both bind to the same IL1 receptor (IL1R1) and are potent proinflammatory cytokines
  • may have a critical function in the development of obesity
  • autophagy has a potentially pivotal role to play in the induction and regulation of inflammatory responses by innate immune cells, largely driven by IL1A, IL1B and its consequential effects on IL23A secretion
  • IL1A and IL23A signaling seems to be closely regulated through MYD88 in both innate and adaptive immune cells
  • in macrophages IL1A primarily acts as an alarmin that is rapidly released upon cell damage to activate early mechanisms of host defense
  • is a key senescence-associated (SA) proinflammatory cytokine that acts as a critical upstream regulator of the senescence-associated (SA) secretory phenotype (SASP)
  • IL1A and IL1B, are central to host responses to infection and to damaging sterile inflammation
  • IL1A, IL1B are important participants in the age-related exhaustion of ovarian reserve in mammalian, possibly by enhancing the expression of inflammatory genes and promoting apoptotic pathways
  • IL1A and IL1B are key players in the innate immune system
  • triggers lung responses requiring macrophage proliferation and maturation from tissue-resident macrophages
  • is a crucial danger signal triggering acute myocardial inflammation during myocardial infarction
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, cell death/apoptosis
  • after cell injury
  • extracellular fluid calcium homeostasis
    a component
    small molecule
  • binding the IL1 receptor
  • interacting with S100A13
  • stimulates cardiac myofibroblasts (CMF) to express IL1B, TNF, and IL6 via specific signaling pathways
  • IL1B directly binds IL1A thus identifying IL1B as a shuttle for another proinflammatory cytokine
  • MYD88 plays a critical role in integrating IL1A and IL23A signaling for Th17 cell proliferation and expansion
  • as a result of its nuclear activity, IL1A overexpression promotes NFKB1 activity, but also interacts with the histone acetyl transferase (HAT) EP300
  • IL1A regulates CXCL1, CXCL10, and ICAM1 in network form in oral keratinocytes
  • IL1A regulates extracellular domain shedding of SDC2 through regulation of the MAP kinase-mediated MMP7 expression in colon cancer cells
  • S100A7 induces mature IL1A expression in normal human epidermal keratinocytes, which is dependent on AGER/MAPK14 and calpain-1 as the inhibitors or knockdown of them completely decreased the expression of mature IL1A
  • cell & other
  • stimulating osteoclastic activity
    Other IL1A and IL1B polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation are central mechanisms in the regulation of intracellular IL1 levels in dendritic cells
    corresponding disease(s)
  • to end-stage renal disease in NIDDM patients
  • to rheumatoid arthritis
  • Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target antibodies specific as therapeutic targets in rheumatoid arthritis