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Symbol PRKCD contributors: mct - updated : 10-12-2014
HGNC name protein kinase C, delta
HGNC id 9399
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 31.53 kb     19 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Promoter
Binding site   transcription factor
text structure multiple putative tranription binding sites involved in spermatogenesis, embryogenesis, development
MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
Physical map
TLR9 3p21.3 toll-like receptor 9 PTK9L 3p21.1 PTK9L protein tyrosine kinase 9-like (A6-related protein) FLJ32332 3p21.31 likely ortholog of mouse protein phosphatase 2C eta PRO2730 3p21.31 hypothetical protein PRO2730 GLYCTK 3p21.31 CG9886-like PPP2R5CP 3p21.3 protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B (B56), gamma isoform pseudogene BAP1 3p21.31-p21.2 BRCA1 associated protein-1 (ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase) PHF7 3p21.31 PHD finger protein 7 LOC56920 3p21.31 semaphorin sem2 TNNC1 3p21.3-p14.3 troponin C, slow NISCH 3p21.1 nischarin STAB1 3p21.31 stabilin 1 FLJ12442 3p21.31 hypothetical protein FLJ12442 PB1 3p21 hypothetical protein FLJ12442 NS 3p21.31 nucleostemin AD-017 3p21.31 glycosyltransferase AD-017 SPC12 3p21.31 signal peptidase 12kDa NEK4 3p21.1 NIMA (never in mitosis gene a)-related kinase 4 ITIH1 3p21.2-p21.1 inter-alpha (globulin) inhibitor, H1 polypeptide ITIH3 3p21.2-p21.1 pre-alpha (globulin) inhibitor, H3 polypeptide ITIH4 3p21.2-p21.1 inter-alpha (globulin) inhibitor H4 (plasma Kallikrein-sensitive glycoprotein) LOC389125 3 similar to hypothetical protein MGC52022 3p21.31 Similar to RIKEN cDNA 1810038N08 gene SFMBT1 3p21.31 Scm-like with four mbt domains 1 LOC285398 3p21.31 hypothetical protein LOC285398 RFT1 3p21.31 putative endoplasmic reticulum multispan transmembrane protein PRKCD 3p21.31 protein kinase C, delta TKT 3p14.3 transketolase (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome) HSA275986 3p21.31 transcription factor SMIF LOC391539 3 similar to 40S ribosomal protein S25 CACNA1D 3p14.3 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit CHDH 3p21.1 choline dehydrogenase IL17RB 3p21.1 interleukin 17 receptor B ACTR8 3p21.31 ARP8 actin-related protein 8 homolog (yeast) SELK 3p21.31 selenoprotein K
TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
19 - 2850 77 676 - 2003 12809676
encoding for the same product as variant 2
18 splicing 2738 77 676 - 2003 12809676
  • lacking exon 2
  • encoding for the same product as variant 1
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveintestinelarge intestinecolon moderately
    Endocrinepancreas   lowly
     parathyroid   moderately
    Lymphoid/Immunespleen   lowly
    Nervousbrain   lowly
     nerve   moderately
    Reproductivefemale systemovary  moderately
     female systembreastmammary gland moderately
     male systemprostate  moderately
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow    Homo sapiens
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticplatelet Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion lymph
    at STAGE
  • an N-terminal regulatory domain with an inhibitory pseudosubstrate sequence and two cysteine-rich zinc-finger-like sequences (C1A and C1B)
  • two zinc-dependent phorbol-ester and DAG binding domains
  • one c2 domain
  • a C-terminal catalytic domain with two conserved regions, an ATP-binding region (C3) and a catalytically active substrate-binding region (C4), with a putative nuclear localization signal in the catalytic domain
    interspecies homolog to rattus Prkcd (89.90 pc)
    homolog to murine Prkcd (90.79 pc)
  • Ser/Thr protein kinases family
  • PKC subfamily
  • CATEGORY signaling , receptor membrane tyrosine
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,endoplasmic reticulum
    text translocates into the nucleus after exposure of cells to 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C)
    basic FUNCTION
  • involved in proheparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) ectodomain shedding upon TPA stimulation
  • may be playing a role in antigen-dependent control of B-cell function
  • required for mitochondrial apoptosis induction by genotoxic stress
  • plays an essential role in the genotoxic stress response leading to apoptotic cell death in various cell types
  • plays a role in the development of hypertension-induced encephalopathy
  • plays an essential role in the regulation of apoptosis in response to a large and diverse array of apoptotic stimuli
  • directly transduces TCR signals leading to polarized granule secretion
  • plays a key role in the inflammatory effect of IL6 in adipose cells
  • differentially regulates platelet functional responses
  • function in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene repression and plays a key role in cellular senescence program
  • acts both upstream and downstream of caspase-3 for apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells
  • with PRKCH, differently regulate the expression of loricrin and Jun family proteins in keratinocytes
  • plays a role in alanine aminotransferase release, the ER stress signal, and cell death
  • regulates palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity
  • plays a role not only in the propagation of the ER stress signal but also in cell death
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell life, differentiation
    cell life, proliferation/growth
    cell life, cell death/apoptosis
    protein, post translation
    a component
  • PRMT5/WDR77-dependent methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that assists in silencing of IVL expression, and PRKCD signaling activates gene expression by directly activating transcription and by suppressing PRMT5/WDR77-dependent arginine dimethylation of promoter-associated histones
    small molecule
  • PDK1, NFKB (involved in the expression of PRKCD)
  • RAD9A
  • interacting with VHL
  • interaction between PRKCD and PRKDC participates in apoptosis induced by DNA damage
  • apoptotic lamin kinase (efficient nuclear lamina disassembly at apoptosis requires lamin B phosphorylation followed by its caspase-6-mediated proteolytic degradation)
  • interacted with and phosphorylated phospholipid scramblase 3 (PLSCR3) after UV irradiation
  • IFNA1-induced the expression of IFIT3 and STAT1 in THP-1 cells, and this process was significantly antagonized by the specific inhibitors of both PRKCD and MAPK8
  • interacting with TRO (Trophinin-mediated cell adhesion induces apoptosis of human endometrial epithelial cells through PRKCD)
  • cathepsin K exocytosis is controlled by PRKCD through modulation of the actin bundling protein myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS)
  • BTK was involved in close contact with Tyr86 and Tyr106 of MAL whereas PKRKCD may phosphorylate Tyr106 only
  • PRKCD-mediated MARCKS phosphorylation as a key step in the inflammatory response of neutrophils
  • cell & other
    activated by a variety of stimuli, including ionizing radiation, anticancer agents, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ultraviolet radiation, growth factors and cytokines
    corresponding disease(s) CVID9
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional       gain of function
    its activation plays a role in progression of steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    may be a suitable target for novel anti-inflammatory agents
    may be a therapeutic target for the prevention of blood-brain barrier disruption