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Symbol SLC18A2 contributors: mct - updated : 11-04-2020
HGNC name solute carrier family 18 (vesicular monoamine), member 2
HGNC id 10935
Corresponding disease
PKDYS2 Parkinsonism-dystonia, infantile, 2
Location 10q25.3      Physical location : 119.000.583 - 119.038.941
Synonym name
  • synaptic vesicular amine transporter
  • vesicular monoamine transporter 2
  • monoamine transporter
  • Synonym symbol(s) SVMT, VAT2, VMAT2, SVAT, MGC26538, PKDYS2, MGC120477, MGC120478
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 36.38 kb     16 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked   status confirmed
    Physical map
    TRUB1 10q26.11 TruB pseudouridine (psi) synthase homolog 1 (E. coli) KIAA0534 10q26 KIAA0534 protein GFRA1 10q26 GDNF family receptor alpha 1 MGC35062 10q26.11-q26.12 Similar to RIKEN cDNA 1700011F14 gene LOC119548 10q26.12 hypothetical protein LOC119548 PNLIP 10q24-q26 pancreatic lipase PNLIPRP1 10q26.12 pancreatic lipase-related protein 1 PNLIPRP2 10q26.12 pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 MGC33547 10q26.12 hypothetical protein MGC33547 HSPA12A  heat shock 70kDa protein 12A LOC387712 10 similar to RIKEN cDNA 6430537H07 gene KIAA1598 10q26.12 KIAA1598 protein LOC387713 10 similar to ventral anterior homeobox 1 TRIK 10q26.12 TWIK-related spinal cord K+ channe SLC18A2 10q25 solute carrier family 18 (vesicular monoamine), member 2 LOC118987 10q26.12 hypothetical protein LOC118987 LOC387714 10 LOC387714 EMX2 10q26.1 empty spiracles homolog 2 (Drosophila) Rab11-FIP2 10q26.12 KIAA0941 protein C10orf5 10q26.12 chromosome 10 open reading frame 5 FLJ13188 10q26.12 hypothetical protein FLJ13188 GPR10 10q25.3-q26 G protein-coupled receptor 10 LOC390007 10 similar to Mitochondrial import receptor subunit TOM22 homolog (Translocase of outer membrane 22 kDa subunit homolog) (hTom22) (1C9-2) C10orf46 10q26.12-q26.13 chromosome 10 open reading frame 46 LOC88066 10q26.13 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L17 (L23) NANOS1 10q26.13 nanos homolog 1 (Drosophila) EIF3S10 10q26 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit 10 theta, 150/170kDa SFXN4 10q26.12 sideroflexin 4 PRDX3 10q25-q26 peroxiredoxin 3 GPRK5 10q24-qter G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 RGS10 10q25 regulator of G-protein signalling 10
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    16 - 1894 - 514 - 2002 12009896
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Endocrineadrenal gland   highly
     pancreas   highly Homo sapiens
     thyroid   highly
    Nervousbrainmidbrain    Homo sapiens
     brainbasal nucleistriatum highly Homo sapiens
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectiveadipose    Homo sapiens
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Endocrineislet cell (alpha,beta...) Homo sapiens
    Nervousneuron Homo sapiens
    not specificadipocyte Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
  • twelve transmembrane spanning segments (12TM)
    interspecies homolog to murine Slc18a2
  • major facilitator superfamily
  • vesicular transporter family
  • CATEGORY transport carrier
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     plasma membrane
    text vesicular membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters
  • essential for loading monoamines into vesicles and maintaining normal neurotransmission
  • regulates neurotransmission and reduces cytosolic toxicity of monoamines
  • during the stimulus, the endocytosis of VMAT2 (but not VGLUT1) accelerates dramatically in midbrain dopamine but not hippocampal neurons, indicating a novel, cell-specific mechanism to sustain high rates of release
  • sequesters cytoplasmic dopamine into synaptic vesicles for storage and release
  • catalyzes transport of monoamines into storage vesicles in a process that involves exchange of the charged monoamine with two protons
  • is responsible for sequestering cytosolically toxic dopamine into intracellular secretory vesicles
  • by regulating the storage of monoamines transmitters into synaptic vesicles, has a protective role against their cytoplasmic toxicity
  • causal link between reduced SLC18A2 expression and fear behavior, consistent with the correlational relationship between SLC18A2 genotype and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk
    a component
    small molecule
  • direct binding between the N-terminus and the third cytoplasmic loop of SLC18A2, as well as, a region containing the substrate binding and the C-terminal domains of HSPA8
  • PARK7 stimulates SLC18A2 activity in the synapse by transactivation of the SLC18A2 gene and by direct binding to SLC18A2 and cysteine 106 is necessary for the stimulating activity of PARK7 toward SLC18A2
  • cell & other
    inhibited by fluoxetine (inhibited the activity of SLC18A2 by a mechanism different from that of reserpine and did not directly interact with the active site of SLC18A2
    Other regulated by HSPA8 (important role for HSPA8 in SLC18A2 function and regulation)
    corresponding disease(s) PKDYS2
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --low  
    in platelets from patients with Parkinson disease
    constitutional     --over  
    might be a compensatory mechanism to restore and maintain synaptic transmission in dopaminergic midbrain neurons during nicotine withdrawal
    tumoral     --low  
    silencing by DNA hypermethylation and/or allelic loss is a frequent event in prostate cancer and a novel independent predictor of biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy
    constitutional germinal mutation      
    in microphthalmia
  • to alcoholism
  • to Parkinson disease
  • to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
  • to heroin dependence
  • to sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS)
  • Variant & Polymorphism SNP
  • 14234G>A and 2504T>C decreasing the risk of alcoholism
  • protective role for gain-of -function haplotypes in sporadic Parkinson disease, through increasing of sequestration of dopamine in secretory vesicles
  • GG of rs363371 in SLC18A2 may reduce the risk for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS)
  • SLC18A2 SNPs (rs363332, rs363334 and rs363338) associated with heroin dependence
  • Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    neurologyneurodegenerativeParkinson/dementia Parkinsonism
    target of genetic medications for PD
    SLC18A2 may be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment and/or prevention of Tardive dyskinesia (TD)
  • Vmat2-overexpressing mice show improved outcomes on anxiety and depressive-like behaviors and increased basal locomotor activity