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Symbol MRE11A contributors: mct/pgu - updated : 30-06-2012
HGNC name MRE11 meiotic recombination 11 homolog A (S. cerevisiae)
HGNC id 7230
Corresponding disease
ATLD ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder
Location 11q21      Physical location : 94.150.468 - 94.227.040
Synonym name
  • AT-like disease
  • DNA recombination and repair protein
  • double-strand break repair protein MRE11A
  • endo/exonuclease Mre11
  • Synonym symbol(s) MRE11, MRE11B, HNGS1, ATLD
    TYPE functioning gene
    SPECIAL FEATURE opposite orientation
    STRUCTURE 76.57 kb     20 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    20 splicing 5141 80.6 708 - 2011 11371508
  • isoform 1
  • 19 splicing 5164 77 680 - 2011 11371508
  • isoform 2
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveesophagus   highly
     mouthtongue  highly
    Endocrineparathyroid   highly
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / Hematopoieticbone marrow   
    cell lineage
    cell lines proliferating cells
    at STAGE
    physiological period embryo
    Text stem cells
  • N terminus having four highly conserved domains responsible for nuclease activities (the third domain contains an invariant histidine residue that acts directly in catalysis by stabilizing the transition state of the sugar-phosphate moiety of the scissile bond during nucleolysis)
  • a capping domain
  • a glycine-arginine-rich (GAR) motif with an important role in regulating MRE11A function at the biochemical and cellular levels during DNA double-strand break repair (MRE11-methylated GAR domain is sufficient for its targeting to DNA damage foci and colocalization with gamma-H2AX) , and have a critical role in DSB repair, and in ATR activation
  • two predicted DNA-binding regions in the central (DB-A) and the C-terminal (DB-B) regions
  • mono polymer heteromer
    interspecies homolog to yeast meiotic recombination 1 (RAD52 epistasis group)
    homolog to yeast S.cerevisiae Mrc11p
    homolog to murine Mre11a
    homolog to rattus Mre11a
    homolog to C.elegans Zc302.1
    intraspecies homolog to MRE11B
  • MRE11/RAD32 family
  • CATEGORY enzyme , DNA associated
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
  • presence of MRE11A in the mitochondria of cells, and amount of MRE11A in mitochondria increases with elevation of extracellular NaCl
  • in nondifferentiated cells, is mostly in the nucleus, but it becomes mostly cytoplasmic upon cell differentiation
  • basic FUNCTION
  • interacting with Ku70 but not likely involved in DNA double strand repairs by non homologous end-joining
  • maybe modulating C-loops function at telomeres
  • regulating mitotic recombination
  • mediating the annealing of complementary single-strand DNA molecules
  • maintains genomic stability by bridging DNA ends and initiating DNA damage signaling through activation of the ATM kinase
  • nucleolytic processing by MRE11A is an essential function of fundamental importance in DNA repair, distinct from MRN control of ATM signaling
  • having structural and enzymatic contributions within the DSB repair complex to the biological needs for both creating and controlling proper 3-OH ends to prime DNA repair synthesis
  • key enzyme in DNA double-strand break repair and genome stability
  • can favor alternative nonhomologous end joining through its nuclease activity
  • influences the cellular response to telomere dysfunction, reminiscent of its influence on the resposne to interstitial DNA breaks, and may promote telomeric DNA end processing during DNA replication
  • MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 (MRN) complex has a central function in facilitating activation of the ATM protein kinase at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs)
  • ATM has a critical regulatory function in controlling DNA end-stability and error-prone DSB repair and MRE11A nuclease plays a major role in initiating microhomology-mediated end joining in cells, particularly in neuronal cells, which are post-mitotic
  • given that MRE11A dimers cooperate to bind DNA and DNA is also bound across both MRE11A protomers, a structural modulation in the MRE11A dimer would be an ideal mechanism to provide the dsDNA melting activity and position DNA into the active site for endo/exonucleolytic cleavage
  • MRE11 complex, specifically through its nuclease activity, implicated in fork degradation in the absence of BRCA2
  • critical participant in upkeep of nuclear DNA, its repair, replication, meiosis, and maintenance of telomeres
  • potential role in the maintenance of genome integrity in mitochondria in addition to its previously known role in maintenance of nuclear DNA
  • is most likely involved with the MMR (DNA mismatch repair) pathway in a more complex fashion than simply being a MMR target gene
  • plays an important role in repairing damaged DNA by cleaving broken ends and by providing a platform for other DNA repair proteins
  • ATP hydrolysis opens the RAD50-MRE11A complex, and MRE11A maintains exonuclease activity
  • ATP hydrolysis is a molecular switch that converts MRE11A from an endonuclease to an exonuclease
  • serves as a cytosolic sensor for Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)
  • contributes to recognition of a broad spectrum of dsDNA and the contribution of MRE11A is not restricted to certain cell types
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, recombination
    nucleotide, repair, recombination
    nucleotide, genomic integrity
    text telomere maintenance
    a component
  • forming a complex with RAD50 and XRS2/NBS1 (complex MRE11, RAD50 and NBS1 (MRN), are central to maintaining genomic stability)
  • nuclease (endo and exo-activities)
  • MR complex contains the MRE11A nuclease dimer and two flanking RAD50 ATPase domains
  • part of MRE11A-ATM-RNF168 signaling complex, implicated in a signaling cascade that directly promotes a PI3K-independent pathway of AKT1 phosphorylation
    DNA binding to single strand DNA
    small molecule metal binding, cofactor,
  • Mn2+
  • protein
  • binding to BRCA1
  • interaction with RAD50, XRS2/NBS1, complex required for TERF1 phosphorylation by ATM and such phosphorylation results in the release of TERF1 from telomeres, promoting telomerase access to the ends of telomeres
  • RecQ helicases WRN and BLM
  • regulates RBBP8-dependent double-strand break repair by interaction with CDK2
  • physically interacted with dsDNA in the cytoplasm and was required for activation of TMEM173 and IRF3
  • cell & other
    corresponding disease(s) ATLD
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral       loss of function
    in colorectal cancer
    tumoral germinal mutation     loss of function
    in patients with primary ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancers
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target