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FLASH GENE
Symbol CD59 contributors: mct - updated : 31-10-2012
HGNC name CD59 molecule, complement regulatory protein
HGNC id 1689
Corresponding disease
CD59D CD59 deficiency
Location 11p13      Physical location : 33.724.557 - 33.758.025
Synonym name
  • homologous restriction factor (18 kD)
  • membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (protectin)
  • CD59 antigen p18-20 (antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 16.3A5, EJ16, EJ30, EL32 and G344)
  • CD59 antigen, complement regulatory protein
  • 1F5 antigen
  • 20 kDa homologous restriction factor
  • membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis
  • membrane attack complex inhibition factor
  • Synonym symbol(s) HRF20, MACIF, MIRL, C8BP, MIN1, MIN2, MIN3, MIC11, MSK21, EJ16, EJ30, EL32, G344, 16.3A5, p18-20, MGC2354, MER1, PROTECTIN
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 33.47 kb     5 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked   status confirmed
    Map pter - HVBS1 - BDNF - FSHB FSHB - D11S158 - MPPED2 - D11S16 - D11S315 - D11S914 - D11S1322 - AN (PAX6 ) - WT1 WT1 - CD59 - LMO2 - CAT CAT - CD44 - RAG1 /RAG2 - cen
    Authors Hanson (92), Heckl-Ístreicher (93), Bickmore (93), Schwartz (94), Gawin (95)
    Text seeWAGR
    Physical map
    LOC341019 HCP25 11p13 cytochrome c, somatic pseudogene LOC120526 11p14.1 hypothetical protein LOC120526 FLJ25059 11p14.1 hypothetical protein FLJ25059 ELP4 11p13 elongation protein 4 homolog (S. cerevisiae) PAX6 11p13 paired box gene 6 (aniridia, keratitis) RCN1 11p13 reticulocalbin 1, EF-hand calcium binding domain LOC390105 11 similar to RIKEN cDNA 0610012H03 WT1 11p13 Wilms tumor 1 WIT-1 11p13 Wilms tumor associated protein LOC387760 11 LOC387760 GA17 11p13 LOC387760 RPL34P2 11p13 ribosomal protein L34 pseudogene 2 TMG4 11p13 transmembrane gamma-carboxyglutamic acid protein 4 FLJ21924 11p13 hypothetical protein FLJ21924 LOC91614 11p13 novel 58.3 KDA protein FLJ11336 11p13 hypothetical protein FLJ11336 PIGCP1 11p13-p12 phosphatidylinositol glycan, class C, pseudogene 1 CSTF3 11p13 cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 3, 77kDa LOC390107 11 similar to ribosomal protein S24 HIPK3 11p13 homeodomain interacting protein kinase 3 G2 11p13 G2 protein MGC34830 11p13 hypothetical protein MGC34830 CD59 11p13 CD59 antigen p18-20 (antigen identified by monoclonal antibodies 16.3A5, EJ16, EJ30, EL32 and G344) FBXO3 11p12 F-box only protein 3 LOC390108 11 similar to hypothetical protein MGC40611 LMO2 11p13 LIM domain only 2 (rhombotin-like 1) M11S1 11p13 membrane component, chromosome 11, surface marker 1 FLJ10774 11p13 N-acetyltransferase-like protein ABTB2 11p13 ankyrin repeat and BTB (POZ) domain containing 2 CAT 11p13 catalase ELF5 11p15-p13 E74-like factor 5 (ets domain transcription factor) EHF 11p12 ets homologous factor MMRP19 11p13 likely ortholog of mouse monocyte macrophage 19 PDHX 11p13 pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, component X CD44 11p13 CD44 antigen (homing function and Indian blood group system) SLC1A2 11p13-p12 solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 2 DKFZP586H2123 11p13 DKFZP586H2123 protein FJX1 11p13 four jointed box 1 (Drosophila) TRIM44 11p12-14 tripartite motif-containing 44 LOC119722 11p13 similar to Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 18 (Cytokeratin 18) (K18) (CK 18) LOC143458 11p13 hypothetical protein LOC143458
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    text encoding the same protein
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    4 - 7635 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    5 - 7751 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    6 - 7796 14.2 128 - 2006 16844690
    5 - 7680 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    4 - 7573 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    4 - 7629 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    5 - 7694 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    3 - 7801 - 128 - 2006 16844690
    EXPRESSION
    Type
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / Hematopoieticbone marrow   
    Lymphoid    
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood/Hematopoieticerthrocyte
    Lymphoid/Immunelymphocyte
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored membrane glycoprotein
  • ten conserved cysteine residues
  • a W40 AA of CD59 important to its anti-complement activity, and prohibition of this site may be a potential way to increase complement activity and to treat tumors
  • one UPAR/Ly6 domain
  • conjugated GlycoP
    isoforms Precursor
    HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to murine lymphocyte antigen Ly-6L
    Homologene
    FAMILY
    CATEGORY antigen
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        plasma membrane
    basic FUNCTION
  • homologous restriction factor (18 kD) binding through C8G to the membrane attack complex of complement as a membrane inhibitor of cell lysis
  • functions as a co-receptor in natural killer cell activation
  • inhibits assembly of the lytic membrane attack complex of complement by incorporation into the forming complex
  • may inhibit the cytolytic activity of complement by binding to C8/C9 and protect host cell membranes against homologous membrane attack complex (MAC)
  • broadly expressed GPI-anchored molecule, regulates formation of the membrane attack complex of the complement cascade
  • CD55 inhibits the formation of C3 convertases, and CD59 prevents the terminal polymerisation of the membrane attack complex
  • CD55 and CD59 restrict complement activation by inhibiting C3/C5 convertases activities and membrane attack complex formation, respectively (
  • GPI-anchored membrane regulator of complement expressed on blood cells as well as peripheral tissues
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling signal transduction
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • membrane attack complex of complement
  • physically associated with NKP46 and NCR3
  • CD59 (complement defense 59) mRNA is a novel cleavage target of ERN1
  • cell & other T cell activation
    REGULATION
    activated by HBXIP, that upregulates CD46, CD55 and CD59 through p-ERK1/2/NFKB signaling to protect breast cancer from complement-dependent cytotoxicity
    Other regulated by EHD1 (role for EHD1 in regulating the trafficking of CD59, an endogenous GPI-AP, at early stages of trafficking through the endocytic pathway)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) CD59D
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    constitutional     --over  
    in cardiac hypertrophy
    constitutional     --low  
    on peripheral blood leucocytes in T2DM patients with macrovascular diseases
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cancerreproductivebreast
    may be a promising target in the gene therapy of breast cancer
    cancer  
    blockade of CD59 significantly enhanced the CD4(+) T cell response to two different tumor Ags
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS
  • Cd59a inhibits systemic autoimmunity in MRL/lpr mice through a complement-independent mechanism
  • Cd59 protects against angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice
  • number of endoneurial macrophages was significantly higher in Cd59a deficient mice compared to wildtypes at 1 day post-injury