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Symbol TRIO contributors: npt/mct - updated : 19-09-2017
HGNC name triple functional domain (PTPRF interacting)
HGNC id 12303
Corresponding disease
MRD44 mental retardation, autosomal dominant 44
Location 5p15.2      Physical location : 14.143.828 - 14.509.450
Synonym name
  • trio phosphoprotein, with three enzyme domains
  • guanidine nucleotide exchange factor
  • Synonym symbol(s) TGAT, FLJ42780, ARHGEF23, MEBAS, MRD44
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 365.62 kb     57 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Physical map
    LOC391737 5 similar to Intersectin 1 (SH3 domain-containing protein 1A) (SH3P17) DAP 5p12.2 death-associated protein CTNND2 5p15.3 catenin (cadherin-associated protein), delta 2 (neural plakophilin-related arm-repeat protein) LOC389274 5 LOC389274 LOC285694 5p15.2 hypothetical LOC285694 LOC391738 5 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L29 (Cell surface heparin binding protein HIP) DNAH5 5p15-p14 dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 5 TRIO 5p15.2 triple functional domain (PTPRF interacting) FLJ11127 5p15.2 hypothetical protein FLJ11127 LOC391739 5 similar to chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 6A (zeta 1); chaperonin containing T-complex subunit 6 EEF1AL11 5p15.1 eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha-like 11 LOC90268 5p15.2 hypothetical protein BC007706 ANKH 5p15.2-p14.1 ankylosis, progressive homolog (mouse) LOC391740 5 similar to selenophosphate synthetase 2; selenide,water dikinase 2; selenium donor protein 2; selenophosphate synthase LOC391741 5 similar to actin, gamma, cytoplasmic FBXL7 5p14.1-p13.3 F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 7 LOC345722 5p15.1 similar to KIAA1399 protein ZPR9 5p15.1 zinc finger-like protein 9 FLJ20152 5p15.1 hypothetical protein FLJ20152 LOC389275 5 LOC389275 MYO10 5p15-p14.3 myosin X FLJ34047 5p15.1 hypothetical protein FLJ34047 BASP1 5p15.1-p14 brain abundant, membrane attached signal protein 1 FTHL10 5p15.1 ferritin, heavy polypeptide-like 10 LOC285697 5p15.1 similar to Transcription initiation factor TFIID 28 kDa subunit (TAFII-28) (TAFII28) (TFIID subunit p30-beta) LOC340096 5p15.1 similar to histone (15.4 kD) (his-72)
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    57 - 10244 - 3097 - 2006 16033331
    - splicing - - - specifically expressed in the nervous system 2006 16033331
  • exhibit one or two Rho-GEF domains (GEFDs)
  • could be essential for Trio function in neuronal morphology
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveliver   highly
    Endocrineneuroendocrinepituitary  highly
    Lymphoid/Immunelymph node   highly
    Nervousbrain     Homo sapiensFetal
     nervecranial nerve  highly
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectivebone  highly
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    at STAGE
    physiological period pregnancy
    Text placenta
  • N-terminal DH-PH domain is known to activate RAC1 and RHOG
  • a cral-trio domain
  • a GEF domain imporant in TRIO protein function
  • four spectrin-like domains
  • two guanine nucleotide exchange factors domains, one rac, the other rho specific
  • a Ig-like domain
  • a serine/threonine kinase domain
  • two SH3 domains
  • a C-terminal Rho-specific DH-PH cassette, activated by GNAQ, and engaging Rho GTPases for their efficient activation , and that can activate RHOA
  • Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs)
  • CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • likely involved in active cell migration
  • promoting the exchange of GDP by GTP
  • with PTPRF, it could play a role in coordinating cell-matrix and cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for cell migration and cell growth
  • activated the IKK activity by binding with the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex
  • Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, activates NF-kappaB via physical association with IkappaB kinase complexes
  • GEF TRIO is responsible for lamellipodia formation through its N-terminal DH-PH domain in a RAC1-dependent manner during fibronectin-mediated spreading and migration
  • ANKRD26, TRIO, GPS2 and HMMR are novel and important regulators of adipogenesis
  • upon clustering of ICAM1, the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor TRIO activates RAC1, prior to activating RHOG, in a filamin-dependent manner
  • promotes leukocyte transendothelial migration by inducing endothelial docking structure formation in a filamin-dependent manner through the activation of RAC1 and RHOG
  • crucial role for the Rho-GEF TRIO in stabilizing junctions based around vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin (also known as CDH5)
  • importance of spatio-temporal regulation of the actin cytoskeleton through TRIO and RAC1 at CDH5-based cell-cell junctions in the maintenance of the endothelial barrier
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell communication
    text putatively involved in cell-matrix and cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for cell migration
    a component
    small molecule
  • forming complex with the LAR transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase (PTPRF)
  • PTPRS interacting with PPFIA4, BCAR1, TRIO
  • both full-length TRIO and the first DH-PH (TRIOD1) domain of TRIO, which can activate RAC1 and RHOG, interact with ICAM1 and are recruited to leukocyte adhesion sites
  • NAV1 interacts and colocalizes with TRIO, a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor that enables neurite outgrowth by activating the Rho GTPases RAC1 and RHOG
  • TRIO is a mitotic GEF of RAC1, and TRIO controls RAC1 activation and subsequent F-actin remodeling in dividing cells
  • interact with the C-terminal PBH 9/10 domains of PCLO and BSN via its own N-terminal Spectrin repeats, a domain that is also critical for its localization to the cytoskeletal matrix assembled at the presynaptic active zone (AZ) (CAZ)
  • CDH2-signaling via TRIO assembles adherens junctions to restrict endothelial permeability
  • cell & other
    Other phosphorylated on serine residue(s)
    corresponding disease(s) MRD44
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral   amplification --over  
    in soft tissue sarcomas
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target