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FLASH GENE
Symbol TRIO contributors: npt/mct - updated : 19-09-2017
HGNC name triple functional domain (PTPRF interacting)
HGNC id 12303
Corresponding disease
MRD44 mental retardation, autosomal dominant 44
Location 5p15.2      Physical location : 14.143.828 - 14.509.450
Synonym name
  • trio phosphoprotein, with three enzyme domains
  • guanidine nucleotide exchange factor
  • Synonym symbol(s) TGAT, FLJ42780, ARHGEF23, MEBAS, MRD44
    EC.number 2.7.11.1
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 365.62 kb     57 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Physical map
    LOC391737 5 similar to Intersectin 1 (SH3 domain-containing protein 1A) (SH3P17) DAP 5p12.2 death-associated protein CTNND2 5p15.3 catenin (cadherin-associated protein), delta 2 (neural plakophilin-related arm-repeat protein) LOC389274 5 LOC389274 LOC285694 5p15.2 hypothetical LOC285694 LOC391738 5 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L29 (Cell surface heparin binding protein HIP) DNAH5 5p15-p14 dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 5 TRIO 5p15.2 triple functional domain (PTPRF interacting) FLJ11127 5p15.2 hypothetical protein FLJ11127 LOC391739 5 similar to chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 6A (zeta 1); chaperonin containing T-complex subunit 6 EEF1AL11 5p15.1 eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha-like 11 LOC90268 5p15.2 hypothetical protein BC007706 ANKH 5p15.2-p14.1 ankylosis, progressive homolog (mouse) LOC391740 5 similar to selenophosphate synthetase 2; selenide,water dikinase 2; selenium donor protein 2; selenophosphate synthase LOC391741 5 similar to actin, gamma, cytoplasmic FBXL7 5p14.1-p13.3 F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 7 LOC345722 5p15.1 similar to KIAA1399 protein ZPR9 5p15.1 zinc finger-like protein 9 FLJ20152 5p15.1 hypothetical protein FLJ20152 LOC389275 5 LOC389275 MYO10 5p15-p14.3 myosin X FLJ34047 5p15.1 hypothetical protein FLJ34047 BASP1 5p15.1-p14 brain abundant, membrane attached signal protein 1 FTHL10 5p15.1 ferritin, heavy polypeptide-like 10 LOC285697 5p15.1 similar to Transcription initiation factor TFIID 28 kDa subunit (TAFII-28) (TAFII28) (TFIID subunit p30-beta) LOC340096 5p15.1 similar to histone (15.4 kD) (his-72)
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    57 - 10244 - 3097 - 2006 16033331
    - splicing - - - specifically expressed in the nervous system 2006 16033331
  • exhibit one or two Rho-GEF domains (GEFDs)
  • could be essential for Trio function in neuronal morphology
  • EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveliver   highly
    Endocrineneuroendocrinepituitary  highly
    Lymphoid/Immunelymph node   highly
    Nervousbrain     Homo sapiensFetal
     nervecranial nerve  highly
    Respiratorylung    
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectivebone  highly
    Muscularstriatumskeletal  
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period pregnancy
    Text placenta
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • N-terminal DH-PH domain is known to activate RAC1 and RHOG
  • a cral-trio domain
  • a GEF domain imporant in TRIO protein function
  • four spectrin-like domains
  • two guanine nucleotide exchange factors domains, one rac, the other rho specific
  • a Ig-like domain
  • a serine/threonine kinase domain
  • two SH3 domains
  • a C-terminal Rho-specific DH-PH cassette, activated by GNAQ, and engaging Rho GTPases for their efficient activation , and that can activate RHOA
  • HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs)
  • CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytosolic
    basic FUNCTION
  • likely involved in active cell migration
  • promoting the exchange of GDP by GTP
  • with PTPRF, it could play a role in coordinating cell-matrix and cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for cell migration and cell growth
  • activated the IKK activity by binding with the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex
  • Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, activates NF-kappaB via physical association with IkappaB kinase complexes
  • GEF TRIO is responsible for lamellipodia formation through its N-terminal DH-PH domain in a RAC1-dependent manner during fibronectin-mediated spreading and migration
  • ANKRD26, TRIO, GPS2 and HMMR are novel and important regulators of adipogenesis
  • upon clustering of ICAM1, the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor TRIO activates RAC1, prior to activating RHOG, in a filamin-dependent manner
  • promotes leukocyte transendothelial migration by inducing endothelial docking structure formation in a filamin-dependent manner through the activation of RAC1 and RHOG
  • crucial role for the Rho-GEF TRIO in stabilizing junctions based around vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin (also known as CDH5)
  • importance of spatio-temporal regulation of the actin cytoskeleton through TRIO and RAC1 at CDH5-based cell-cell junctions in the maintenance of the endothelial barrier
  • CELLULAR PROCESS cell communication
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    text putatively involved in cell-matrix and cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for cell migration
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • forming complex with the LAR transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase (PTPRF)
  • PTPRS interacting with PPFIA4, BCAR1, TRIO
  • both full-length TRIO and the first DH-PH (TRIOD1) domain of TRIO, which can activate RAC1 and RHOG, interact with ICAM1 and are recruited to leukocyte adhesion sites
  • NAV1 interacts and colocalizes with TRIO, a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor that enables neurite outgrowth by activating the Rho GTPases RAC1 and RHOG
  • TRIO is a mitotic GEF of RAC1, and TRIO controls RAC1 activation and subsequent F-actin remodeling in dividing cells
  • interact with the C-terminal PBH 9/10 domains of PCLO and BSN via its own N-terminal Spectrin repeats, a domain that is also critical for its localization to the cytoskeletal matrix assembled at the presynaptic active zone (AZ) (CAZ)
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    Other phosphorylated on serine residue(s)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) MRD44
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral   amplification --over  
    in soft tissue sarcomas
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS