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FLASH GENE
Symbol HRG contributors: mct/npt - updated : 22-03-2018
HGNC name histidine-rich glycoprotein
HGNC id 5181
Corresponding disease
HRG thrombophilia
Location 3q27.3      Physical location : 186.383.797 - 186.396.022
Synonym name
  • thrombophilia due to elevated HRG
  • histidine-proline rich glycoprotein
  • Synonym symbol(s) HPRG, HRGP, DKFZp779H1622
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 12.23 kb     7 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    Physical map
    SFRS10 3q26.2-q27 splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 10 (transformer 2 homolog, Drosophila) LOC344887 3q28 similar to RIKEN cDNA 1110025F24 ETV5 3q28 ets variant gene 5 (ets-related molecule) DGKG 3q27-q28 diacylglycerol kinase, gamma 90kDa CRYGS 3q25-q28 crystallin, gamma S FLJ10560 3q28 hypothetical protein FLJ10560 DNAJB11 3q28 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 11 AHSG 3q27 alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein FETUB 3q27 fetuin B HRG 3q27 histidine-rich glycoprotein LOC391602 3 similar to Histidine-rich glycoprotein precursor (Histidine-proline rich glycoprotein) (HPRG) KNG 3q27 kininogen LOC280644 3q28 proteasome 26S non-ATPase subunit 10 pseudogene EIF4A2 3q28 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A, isoform 2 RFC4 3q27 replication factor C (activator 1) 4, 37kDa LOC389183 3 hypothetical gene supported by BC028116 LOC389184 3 LOC389184 APM1 3q27 LOC389184 LOC285384 3q28 similar to 40S ribosomal protein S20 LOC339928 3q28 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L29 (Cell surface heparin binding protein HIP) SIAT1 3q27-q28 sialyltransferase 1 (beta-galactoside alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase) RPL39L 3q27 ribosomal protein L39-like MGC35450 3q28 hypothetical protein MGC35450 MASP1 3q27-q28 mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 (C4/C2 activating component of Ra-reactive factor) IFRG28 3q28 28kD interferon responsive protein
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    7 - 1964 57.7 525 - Handerson (2009)
    EXPRESSION
    Type
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveliver    
    Urinarykidney    
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion plasma
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • two cystatin-like domains
  • two intrachain disulfide bonds
  • histidine-rich glycoprotein
  • histidine-rich and heparin-binding domain mediating the antibacterial activity of the protein (Rydengard 2007)
  • conjugated GlycoP
    HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • cystatin (cysteine proteinase inhibitor) superfamily
  • CATEGORY enzyme
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
    basic FUNCTION
  • playing a role in modulating coagulation and fibrinolysis
  • has the unique property of selectively recognizing necrotic cells and may play an important physiological role by facilitating the uptake and clearance of necrotic, but not apoptotic, cells by phagocytes (Jones 2005)
  • exerts antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria (enterococcus faecalis and staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa) (Rydengard 2007)
  • may assist in the maintenance of normal immune function by mediating the clearance of necrotic material, inhibiting the formation of insoluble immune complexes and enhancing their ability to activate complement, resulting in faster clearance (Manderson 2009)
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • binding plasminogen and heparin
  • plasma proteins involved in blood coagulation and fibronolysis
  • also binds very strongly, in a heparan sulfate-independent manner, to cytoplasmic ligand(s) exposed in necrotic cells (interaction is mediated by the N-terminal domain of HRG and results in enhanced phagocytosis of the necrotic cells by a monocytic cell line) (Jones 2005)
  • binds strongly to several complement proteins: C1q, factor H and C4b-binding protein (both HRG and C1q bind to necrotic cells and increase their phagocytosis) (Manderson 2009)
  • NR1H4 controls the liver derived tumor suppressor HRG
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    Other proteolytic cleavage of HRG by plasmin may provide a feedback mechanism to regulate the effects of HRG on the plasminogen/plasmin system and other functions of HRG (Poon 2009)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s) HRG
    Susceptibility to shortening of the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)
    Variant & Polymorphism SNP a nonsynonymous coding SNP (610C>T, Pro204Ser) in exon 5 increasing the risk of aPTT (Houlihan 2010)
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS