Selected-GenAtlas references SOURCE GeneCards NCBI Gene Swiss-Prot Ensembl
HGNC UniGene Nucleotide OMIM UCSC
Home Page
Symbol PRDM16 contributors: mct/ - updated : 18-04-2017
HGNC name PR domain containing 16
HGNC id 14000
Corresponding disease
LVNC8 left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy 8
Location 1p36.32      Physical location : 2.985.741 - 3.355.183
Synonym name
  • PRD1-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 16
  • positive regulatory domain family protein 16
  • MDS1/EVI1-like gene
  • transcription factor MEL1
  • PR-domain zinc finger protein 16
  • Synonym symbol(s) MEL1, KIAA1675, PFM13, MGC166915
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 369.44 kb     17 Exon(s)
    Genomic sequence alignment details
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    17 splicing 8738 - 1276 - 2006 16598304
    17 splicing 8674 138.05 1257 - 2006 16598304
  • also called MEL1S
  • lacking the PR (positive regulatory domain I binding factor 1 and retinoblastoma-interacting zinc finger protein) domain
  • frequently transcribed in adult T-cell leukemia cells
  • overexpression of the zinc finger protein lacking the PR domain (EVI1 and MEL1S) in the leukemia cells is one of the causative factors in the pathogenesis of myeloid leukemia
  • aberrant expression of MEL1S associated with dysregulation of TGF-beta-mediated signaling
    Type restricted
       expressed in (based on citations)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart     Homo sapiensFetal
     heart     Homo sapiensAdult
    Respiratoryrespiratory tracttrachea   
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Blood / hematopoieticbone marrow   
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Muscularmyocyte Homo sapiensFetal
    cell lineage preferentially expressed by stem cells throughout the nervous and haematopoietic systems
    cell lines specifically in the t(1;3)(p36;q21)-positive MDS/AML cell lines
    at STAGE
    physiological period fetal
    Text liver
  • one N-positive regulatory (PR) domain, which is highly homologous to SET domain
  • ten C2H2-type zinc fingers
    interspecies ortholog to murine Prmd16
    intraspecies homolog to MDS1/EVI1
  • 16 PR domain-containing proteins family
  • CATEGORY transcription factor
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
  • is localized in the nuclei of cardiomyocytes human development and in the adult heart
  • basic FUNCTION
  • involved in regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent
  • controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown fat cells
  • specifies the brown fat lineage from a progenitor that expresses myoblast markers and is not involved in white adipogenesis
  • transcription factor that regulates leukaemogenesis, palatogenesis and brown-fat development
  • functions in brown fat precursors to restrict skeletal muscle gene expression and development
  • controls a bidirectional cell fate switch between skeletal myoblasts and brown adipocytes
  • promotes stem cell maintenance in multiple tissues, partly by modulating oxidative stress
  • required for normal cell-cycle regulation and survival in haematopoietic stem cells and other primitive haematopoietic progenitors
  • in the central nervous system, appears to promote neural stem/progenitor cell function, partly by promoting HGF expression
  • implicated in the myocyte-adipocyte fate switch in skeletal muscle
  • may be a critical node in a network that contains negative and positive feedback loops and integrates hematopoietic stem cells renewal, quiescence, apoptosis and differentiation
  • MECOM and PRDM16 are H3K9me1 methyltransferases, and are essential for mammalian heterochromatin integrity
  • controls chromatin architecture and superenhancer activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT)
  • role of PRDM16 and its PR domain in the epigenetic regulation of myogenic and adipogenic genes during transdifferentiation of C2C12 myoblasts cells
  • MECOM and PRDM16 play additive roles in maintaining normal hematopoietic stem cell survival
  • CELLULAR PROCESS nucleotide, transcription, regulation
    a component
    DNA binding
    small molecule metal binding,
  • Zn2+
  • protein
  • stimulates brown adipogenesis by binding to PPARG(peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) and activating its transcriptional function
  • interacted with SKI and inhibited TGF-beta signaling by stabilizing the inactive SMAD3-SKI complex on the promoter of TGF-beta target genes
  • concomitant MYOD1 and IGF2 inactivation accelerates differentiation of a brown preadipocyte cell line and induces lipid accumulation and increased UCP1 and PRDM16 expression
  • MECOM and PRDM16 initiate heterochromatin formation by inducing cytoplasmic H3K9me1, which is then converted in the nucleus by the SUV39H1 enzymes to H3K9me3
  • EHMT1 expression positively regulates the Brown adipose tissue (BAT)-selective thermogenic program by stabilizing the PRDM16 protein
  • PRDM16 is recruited to the UCP1 enhancer
  • enhances nuclear receptor-dependent transcription of the brown fat-specific UCP1 gene through interactions with Mediator subunit MED1
  • mechanistically, SRCAP recruits the transcriptional regulator REST to the PRDM16 promoter and induces expression of this transcription factor
  • cell & other
    activated by activated in t(1;3)(p36;q21)-positive leukemia cells
    double MYOD1 and IGF2 inactivation (expression of PRDM16 involved in the switch between myogenic and brown adipogenic lineages was drastically enhanced by this inactivation)
    corresponding disease(s) LVNC8
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral fusion      
    fusion with RUNX1 in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia showing t(1;21)(p36;q22)
    tumoral     --over  
    in the t(1;3)(p36;q21)-positive MDS/AML cell lines
    tumoral     --other  
    aberrant gene expression associated with DNA hypomethylation is implicated in leukemogenesis of adult T-cell leukemia
    constitutional     --other  
    ectopic exression in myoblasts induces their differentiation into brown fat cells
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Therapy target
    inducing the expression of PRDM16 in white fat or muscle progenitors could be powerful in fighting obesity