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FLASH GENE
Symbol CYGB contributors: mct - updated : 11-01-2013
HGNC name cytoglobin
HGNC id 16505
Location 17q25.2      Physical location : 74.523.439 - 74.533.782
Synonym name
  • histoglobin
  • stellate cell activation associated protein
  • Synonym symbol(s) HGB, STAP
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 10.34 kb     4 Exon(s)
    10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
    regulatory sequence Promoter
    Binding site   transcription factor   HRE
    text structure
  • 6 alternative exons
  • proximal promoter elements are located between -1113 to -10 relative to the translation start site
  • expression can be up-regulated by c-Ets-1 and Sp1 motifs
  • hypoxia responsive elements (HREs) at positions -141, -144 and -448 that were essential for activation of CYGB expression under hypoxic conditions
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    Physical map
    UNC13D 17q25.3 unc-13 homolog D (C. elegans) WBP2 17q25 WW domain binding protein 2 TRIM47 17q24.q25 tripartite motif-containing 47 LOC201292 17q25.3 hypothetical protein LOC201292 MRPL38 17q23-q25 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L38 FBF-1 17q25.3 Fas binding protein 1 ACOX1 17q25.1 acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl CDK3 17q25 cyclin-dependent kinase 3 EVPL 17q24.2-q24.3 envoplakin SRP68 17q25,1 signal recognition particle 68kDa GALR2 17q25.3 galanin receptor 2 LGICZ 17q25.3 ligand-gated ion channel subunit EXO70 17q25.3 ligand-gated ion channel subunit FOXJ1 17q forkhead box J1 KIAA1917 17q25.3 KIAA1917 protein MGC29814 17q25.3 hypothetical protein MGC29814 DKFZP434P0316 17q25.3 hypothetical protein DKFZp434P0316 PRPSAP1 17q24-q25 phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-associated protein 1 SPHK1 17q25.2 sphingosine kinase 1 E2-230K 17q25.1 likely ortholog of mouse ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-230K AANAT 17q25 arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase FLJ22341 17q25.3 hypothetical protein FLJ22341 CYGB 17q25.3 cytoglobin STHM 17q25.3 cytoglobin SIAT7A 17q25.3 sialyltransferase 7 ((alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetyl galactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase) A FLJ46603 17q25.3 FLJ46603 protein PTDSR 17q25 phosphatidylserine receptor SFRS2 17q25.1 splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 2 ET 17q25 hypothetical protein ET LOC283994 17q25.3 hypothetical protein LOC283994 GnT-IX 17q25.3 beta(1,6)-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V LOC388420 17 LOC388420 SEC14L1 17q25.1-25.3 SEC14-like 1 (S. cerevisiae) HCP40 17q25.3 cytochrome c, somatic pseudogene
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    text four alternative transcripts altogether encoding 3 proteins (ACE/NCBI)
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    4 - 1951 - 190 - 2003 12718557
    EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart   highly
    Endocrineadrenal gland   highly
     neuroendocrinepituitary  highly
    Nervousbrain   highly Homo sapiens
     braindiencephalonhypothalamus highly Homo sapiens
     brainlimbic systemhippocampus highly Homo sapiens
     braindiencephalonthalamus highly Homo sapiens
    Visualeyeretina  highly Homo sapiens
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectivebone  highly
    Epithelialbarrier liningretinal pigment epithelium (RPE)   Homo sapiens
    Epithelialsensoryvisualganglion cell layer  Homo sapiens
    Epithelialsensoryvisualinner nuclear layer  Homo sapiens
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Nervousneuron Homo sapiens
    not specificfibroblast Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a hexacoordinated heme pocket similar to other pentacoordinated globin proteins
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to zebrafish cygb
    ortholog to murine Cygb
    Homologene
    FAMILY vertebrate globin family
    CATEGORY tumor suppressor , transport
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria
    intracellular,cytoplasm,cytoskeleton,microtubule
    intracellular,nucleus
    text
  • found in cytoplasm, along neurotubuli, in mitochondria and in the nucleus
  • basic FUNCTION
  • facilitating oxygen transport
  • in neuronal cells might be specifically induced under oxidative stress to protect them from death
  • functions as a tumor suppressor gene
  • NGB and CYGB may serve a neuroprotective role as scavengers of reactive oxygen species
  • expressed in the vasculature and regulates cell respiration and proliferation via nitric oxide dioxygenation
  • may potentially have a functional role in calcium-dependent events accompanying cardiac remodeling
  • protective function during conditions of oxydative stress
  • role in nitric oxide signalling for CYGB and involvement in sleep-wake cycling for CYGB and NGB
  • plays an important role in protection of the kidney against fibrosis via the amelioration of oxidative stress
  • binding of ferric cytoglobin to lipids and their subsequent transformation may be integral to the physiological function of cytoglobin, generating cell signalling lipid molecules under an oxidative environment
  • serves as a defensive mechanism against oxidative stress
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule metal binding,
    small heme binding O2+
    protein
    cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral        
    in oesophageal biopsies from tylotic patients (TOC)
    constitutional     --over  
    under hypoxic and/or ischemic conditions increases cell survival, suggesting possible protective roles through prevention of oxidative damage
    tumoral     --over  
    hypoxic up-regulation of CYGB/NGB in glioblastoma multiforme cell lines and tumor tissues
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    neurosensorialvisualretina
    should be considered when developing therapeutic strategies for treatment of hypoxia-related ocular diseases
    cancerbrainglioma/neuroblstoma
    modulating cytoglobin levels may be a promising treatment strategy for sensitizing human glioma cells to oxidative stress that is induced by ionizing radiation, certain chemotherapies and ischemia-reperfusion.
    miscelleaneousurinarychronic kidney disease
    might represent a good therapeutic target in chronic kidney disease
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS