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FLASH GENE
Symbol ADM contributors: mct - updated : 12-06-2013
HGNC name adrenomedullin
HGNC id 259
Location 11p15.4      Physical location : 10.326.641 - 10.328.923
Synonym name preproadrenomedullin
Synonym symbol(s) AM
DNA
TYPE functioning gene
STRUCTURE 2.28 kb     4 Exon(s)
10 Kb 5' upstream gene genomic sequence study
regulatory sequence Binding site   enhancer
text structure
  • AP2
  • cAMP regulated enhancer element
  • KLF15 binding site (Nagare 2009)
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status confirmed
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    4 - 1449 20.3 185 - 2001 11310580
    EXPRESSION
    Type ubiquitous
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Cardiovascularheart    
    Reproductivefemale systemoviduct  highly Mus musculus
     female systemovary  highly Homo sapiens
    Respiratorylung     Homo sapiensFetal
    Visualeyeretina    Mus musculus
    tissue
    SystemTissueTissue level 1Tissue level 2LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Connectiveadipose   
    Nervousautonomous   
    Nervousperipherous   
    cell lineage
    cell lines
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • a intramolecular disulfide bond
  • HOMOLOGY
    Homologene
    FAMILY
  • calcitonin peptide family
  • adrenomedullin family
  • CATEGORY regulatory
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION extracellular
        intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm
    basic FUNCTION
  • playing a role in the physiologic control of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis
  • acting in brain and pituitary gland to facilitate the loss of plasma volume, actions which complement their hypotensive effects in blood vessels
  • potent hypotensive and vasodilatator agent
  • acting as a survival factor in osteoblastic cells via a CALCA receptor-MEK-ERK pathway, which provides further understanding on the physiological function of ADM in osteoblasts
  • required for the normal development of the lymphatic vascular system and having role in controlling lymphatic endothelial permeability and lymphatic flow through reorganization of junctional proteins
  • stimulates ciliary motility of the human oviduct (
  • plays an important role in the regulation of osteoblastic cells through both a proliferative and an anti-apoptotic effects
  • could also exert its survival effect in osteoblast via components of the Wnt pathway
  • is indeed a factor that can possibi1ity affect cumulus cells and oocytes and involve meiotic arrest during oocyte maturation
  • regulates the proliferation rate and the differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes of stem/progenitor cells, probably through the PI3K/Akt pathway
  • may contribute to neural stem cell growth regulation by allowing cells to pass through mitosis
  • promotes osteoblast growth and proliferation, inducing an increase in bone mass
  • facilitates voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in osteoblasts
  • expression of the pregnancy-related peptide adrenomedullin by fetal trophoblast cells is necessary and sufficient to promote appropriate recruitment and activation of maternal uterine NK (uNK) cells to the placenta and ultimately facilitate remodeling of maternal
  • exerts anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and stimulates mucosal regeneration for the maintenance of the colonic epithelial barrier
  • acts as an autocrine and/or paracrine factor to play a key role in the regulation of cardiovascular function
  • can act as a GVBD (germinal vesicle breakdown) regulator
  • major regulators of vascular tone and cardiovascular development
  • ADM-RAMP2 system suppresses ER stress-induced tubule cell death, thereby exerting a protective effect on kidney
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism
    signaling
    a component
  • ADM-RAMP2 system is a key determinant of vascular integrity and homeostasis from prenatal stages through adulthood
  • INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • binding to calcitonin receptor and calcitonin receptor-like receptor
  • RAMP2 is a key determinant of the effects of ADM on the vasculature and is essential for angiogenesis and vascular integrity
  • up-regulated the mRNA and protein expressions of HIF1A- and HIF1-targeted genes, and ADM up-regulated the protein expressions of HIF1A through down-regulation of PH4TM mRNA expression and PH4TM activity
  • reciprocal synergistic effects of ADM and CFH (
  • correlation between ADM and TNF that could hypothesise the existence of a complex interaction between ADM and this inflammatory cytokine
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    inhibited by KLF15 (inhibits transcription of the adrenomedullin gene in adipocytes)
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --other  
    aberrantly expressed in multiple myeloma and promotes angiogenesis
    constitutional     --over  
    significant increase of ADM, and TNF in the idiopathic IUGR
    tumoral     --over  
    in patients with pancreatic cancer and causes insulin resistance in beta cells
    constitutional     --over  
    in eyes with ocular pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa, and uveitis
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
  • proADM appears to have the advantage of predicting localized bacterial infection and differentiating sepsis from systemic inflammatory response syndrome, in febrile patients with hematologic malignancies
  • Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    immunologyinflammatory 
    has potential as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of refractory ulcerative colitis
    immunologyinfectious 
    ADM/CFH is a novel therapy target for safe and effective therapy of patients with hemorrhagic shock, sepsis, and ischemic injury
    cancerangiogenesis 
    new potential therapy in cancer, complementary to other existing treatments
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS