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FLASH GENE
Symbol GLS2 contributors: mct - updated : 09-07-2015
HGNC name glutaminase 2 (liver, mitochondrial)
HGNC id 29570
Location 12q13.3      Physical location : 56.864.736 - 56.882.181
Synonym name
  • glutaminase L type
  • breast cell glutaminase
  • glutaminase liver-type isoform
  • L-glutamine amidohydrolase
  • phosphate-activated glutaminase
  • Synonym symbol(s) GLSL, GLS, GA, LGA, hLGA, GAB
    EC.number 3.5.1.2
    DNA
    TYPE functioning gene
    STRUCTURE 17.47 kb     18 Exon(s)
    regulatory sequence Promoter (CAAT box) (TATA box)
    text structure
  • core promoter located between nt -141 and +410
  • several potential regulatory elements : CAAT, GC, TATA-like, Ras-responsive element binding protein and specificity protein 1 (Sp1) sites
  • HNF-1 motif, a significant distal element for transcriptional regulation
  • MAPPING cloned Y linked N status provisional
    RNA
    TRANSCRIPTS type messenger
    text
  • at least one transcribed pseudogene and three transcript variants have been found
  • identificationnb exonstypebpproduct
    ProteinkDaAAspecific expressionYearPubmed
    - - - 2590 - - - 2012 22679499
    - - - 4400 - - kidney, brain, heart, placenta, lung, pancreas 2012 22679499
    18 splicing 2648 66 602 - 2012 22679499
    - splicing 2506 19 177 - 2012 22679499
  • lacking a 130 nt coding exon compared to variant 1
  • 15 - 2296 - 337 - 2012 22679499
    17 - 2518 - 337 - 2012 22679499
    18 - 2721 - 326 - 2012 22679499
    EXPRESSION
    Type widely
       expressed in (based on citations)
    organ(s)
    SystemOrgan level 1Organ level 2Organ level 3Organ level 4LevelPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestiveliver   highly Homo sapiens
    Endocrinepancreas    
    Lymphoid/Immunespleen   highly
    Nervousbrain    
    Urinarykidney    
    cells
    SystemCellPubmedSpeciesStageRna symbol
    Digestivehepatocyte Homo sapiens
    Nervousastrocyte Homo sapiens
    cell lineage
    cell lines breast cancer cells
    fluid/secretion
    at STAGE
    physiological period pregnancy
    Text placenta
    life cycle
    PROTEIN
    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    STRUCTURE
    motifs/domains
  • mitochondrial import presequence of fourteen residues at N terminus
  • two ankyrin repeats domains
  • HOMOLOGY
    interspecies ortholog to rattus Ga
    ortholog to murine Gls2
    homolog to C. elegans 2P6
    Homologene
    FAMILY glutaminase family
    CATEGORY enzyme , protooncogene
    SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION     intracellular
    intracellular,cytoplasm,organelle,mitochondria,matrix
    intracellular,nucleus
    text GLS2 appeared in two different locations, mitochondria and nucleus
    basic FUNCTION
  • catalyzing the hydrolysis of glutamine to stoichiometric amounts of glutamate and ammonia
  • playing an important role in the regulation of glutamine catabolism
  • role for GLS2 acting, at least in part, downstream of TP73 in neuronal differentiation and possible role of TP73 in regulating neurotransmitter synthesis
  • appears to be a functional tumor suppressor involved in the liver and colon tumorigenesis
  • metabolic enzyme responsible for glutaminolysis, a process harnessed by cancer cells to feed their accelerated growth and proliferation
  • non-neurotransmission roles for GLS2 isoforms associated with transcriptional regulation and cellular differentiation
  • CELLULAR PROCESS
    PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS
    PATHWAY
    metabolism aminoacid
    signaling
    a component
    INTERACTION
    DNA
    RNA
    small molecule
    protein
  • PDZ domain of the syntrophin SNTA1
  • function and regulation of GLS2 is not well studied, although it was recently shown to be linked to TP53 pathway
  • GLS2 is a bona fide TP63 target gene, and the TP63-dependent regulation of GLS2 is important for both physiological and pathological processes
  • TP73 regulates GLS2 during retinoic acid-induced terminal neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells
  • target gene of TP53 tumor suppressor
  • cell & other
    REGULATION
    ASSOCIATED DISORDERS
    corresponding disease(s)
    Other morbid association(s)
    TypeGene ModificationChromosome rearrangementProtein expressionProtein Function
    tumoral     --over  
    ectopic overexpression of GLS2 in human glioblastoma T98G cells decreased their proliferation and migration and sensitized them to the alkylating agents often used in the chemotherapy of gliomas
    tumoral     --low  
    in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC)
    Susceptibility
    Variant & Polymorphism
    Candidate gene
    Marker
    Therapy target
    SystemTypeDisorderPubmed
    cancer  
    GLS2 is a potential anti-cancer target
    ANIMAL & CELL MODELS